Friends Freedmen's Association Records
Held at: Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College [Contact Us]500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081
This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.
Overview and metadata sections
In March 1862 a group of Philadelphia Orthodox Quaker women formed "the Women's Aid Association on behalf of the destitute freed Negroes in the Southern States". In November 1863 a corresponding group of Orthodox men Friends organized "the Friends Association of Philadelphia and its vicinity for the Relief of Colored Freedmen" [later changed to "Friends Freedmen's Association of Philadelphia] which worked closely with the Women's Aid Committee. By 1864 Committees on clothing, instruction, publication, farming, stores, as well as nominations, had been established.
In the 1860's and 1870's, the Association was concerned both with relief work and with the establishment of schools for the children of formerly enslaved people. By 1868 there were 25 schools in North Carolina and Virginia, managed and supported by the Association, and later the number of schools increased to 46. By end of the century the counties and states had assumed the role of supplying rudimentary education of African American youth, and the relief work which had been such a large part of the Association's early activity was no longer necessary. Friends' Freedmen's Association channeled its interest and finances into the Christiansburg Industrial Institute, Montgomery County, VA. The Institute was founded in 1866 by Captain Charles Schaeffer, but shortly thereafter its management and financial support were taken over by Friends' Freedmen's Association.
The Christiansburg Industrial Institute grew to include a farm, a Primary and Intermediate School (Hill School) and a High School (Institute) teaching, in addition to academic work, farming, carpentry, blacksmithing, printing, sewing, cooking and household arts. In 1934 the title of the Hill School passed to the Montgomery County School Board, which also took over the management and operation of the Institute, though the title remained in the hands of Friends' Freedmen's Association until 1947.
From 1947-1955 the Association supported black students in schools and summer work camps. From 1955-1970 the income from investments was used to provide grants for scholarship to needy black students. From 1970 income and principal was distributed yearly primarily among Bryn Mawr, Earlham, Guilford, and Haverford Colleges. In January 1982 the Association was dissolved. The funds were distributed among the four colleges named above to be used as aid to black students as the J. Henry Scattergood Scholarship Fund.
Contains the records of the Friends' Freedmen's Association, including minutes, charter, by-laws, minutes, reports, and publications. Also includes material relating to the Association's initial efforts to provide relief and instruction to people recently emancipated from slavery in the South, its subsequent development of school for the children of freedmen, its support and management the Christiansburg Industrial Institute, Cambria, Virginia, and its more recent efforts to support education for blacks at various colleges.
The collection is organized into twenty-four series. The series are:
- Charter and By-Laws
- Executive Board
- Instruction Committee
- Committee Reports
- Statistics of Schools
- School Reports
- Correspondence Sent
- Correspondence Received
- Annual Reports
- Schedule of Goods Forwarded
- Woman's Aid Committee
- WAC Financial Records
- WAC Correspondence Received
- Christiansburg Industrial Institute
- Financial Papers
- Miscellaneous Papers
- The Freedmen's Friend
- Miscellaneous Printed
- Newspaper Clippings
For current information on the location of materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.
Gift of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1975
Gift of Bernard S. Haines, 1983
Material organized, put in document boxes and placed in RG 4.
- American periodicals
- African American youth -- Education -- Southern States
- African Americans -- Education -- Southern States
- African Americans -- Services for -- Southern States
- Charities -- Pennsylvania
- Nonprofit Organizations -- Southern States
- Education -- Southern States
- Freedmen -- Southern States
- Freedmen -- Education -- Southern States
- Freedmen -- Services for -- Southern States
- Quakers -- Pennsylvania
- Quakers -- Societies, etc
- Society of Friends -- Education
- Society of Friends -- Charities -- Records and correspondence
- Schools -- Southern States
- Trade schools -- Virginia
- Women in charitable work -- Pennsylvania
- African Americans -- Education -- Virginia
- Charities -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
- Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College
- Finding Aid Author
- FHL staff
- Finding Aid Date
- Encoding made possible by a grant by the Gladys Kriebel Delmas Foundation to the Philadelphia Consortium of Special Collections Libraries
- Access Restrictions
Access is through microfilm when available: Film Org.F 1-5
- Use Restrictions
Some of the items in this collection may be protected by copyright. The user is solely responsible for making a final determination of copyright status. If copyright protection applies, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder or their heirs/assigns to reuse, publish, or reproduce relevant items beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to the law. See http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/UND/1.0/.
Also includes 2 photostats
Typewritten copy of charter and negative photostat
Includes 18 A.Ls.S. from James Miller McKim
Includes 2 A.Ls.S. [facsimiles] which were laid in
Alphabetically arranged by author
Alphabetically arranged by author
Removed from FHL RG 4 Friends' Freedmen's Association
1897-98, 1898-99, 1900-01, 1902-03, 1903-04, 1905-06, 1907-08, 1910-11, 1911-12, 1912-13, 1914-15, 1916-17, 1918-19, 1920-21, 1922-23, 1924-25, 1925-26, 1927-28, 1928-29, 1929-1930
Extracts from reports