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Clifford Manshardt writings


Held at: University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts [Contact Us]3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6206

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Clifford Manshardt, an American sociologist, was born in Albany, Oregon on March 6, 1897. In 1915, he was a student at the Bradley Polytechnic Institute, and he earned his Bachelor of Philosophy in 1918 from the University of Chicago. He served in the United States Army from 1918 to 1919 during World War I. Following his service in the armed forces, he earned his Master of Arts in 1921 and his Doctor of Philosophy in 1924, both from the University of Chicago; and he earned his Bachelor of Divinity in 1922 and Doctor of Divinity in 1932 from the Chicago Theological Seminary.

In 1925, Manshardt moved to Bombay where he became the director of the Nadpada Neighborhood House until 1941. He was also the founder and first director of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, the first institution in South Asia for a professional social work education. He served as a visiting professor at the Chicago Theological Seminary in 1932 and at the Pacific School Religion in 1941. He was the director of the Bethlehem Community Center of Chicago from 1942 to 1951 before becoming a United States Foreign Service officer from 1951 to 1963 working in New Delhi, India and in Karachi, Pakistan.

Manshardt was also a widely published author, writing largely about Indian history. Some of his books include: Facing Facts in Nagpada: an Illustration of the Technique of the Social Survey (1928), That men may all be brothers: mediations for the year (1930), Settling Conflicts Between Moral Standards (1930), The Social Settlement as an Educational Factor in India (1931), Christianity in a Changing India; an Introduction to the Study of Missions (1933), The Hindu-Muslim Problem in India (1936), The Delinquent Child in India (1939), Freedom Without Violence (1946), The Terrible Meek, an Appreciation of Mohandas K. Gandhi (1948), The Mahatma and the Missionary: Selected Writings of Mohandas K. Gandhi (1949), and Pioneering on Social Frontiers in India (1967).

This collection contains typescript drafts for two of his unpublished writings: "Transitions: The Shipmans of Bombay" and "When Religion Divides: The Story of India and Pakistan." The draft for "Transitions: The Shipmans of Bombay, 1839-1947" consists of two bound volumes (volumes 1 and 2) and describes the public and private life of a fictitious English family living in Bombay. In the preface, Manshardt states that this manuscript "was not intended to be a book. It is rather an attempt to transfer to paper my own interest in Bombay during the 19th Century, and to recount a period in which I was both an observer and a participant, during a residence of almost twenty years, during the stirring years of the Indian National Struggle." Manshardt describes this work as "a selective socio-political narrative, with Bombay as its primary locale."

The draft for "When Religion Divides: The Story of India and Pakistan" is 372 pages and includes edits, presumably by Manshardt. In the preface, Manshardt makes it clear that this work is a follow-up to his 1936 The Hindu-Muslim Problem in India. Manshardt states that "When Religion Divides," "tells the story of how the trend toward Hindu-Muslim accommodation, which was in evidence to almost the end of the 19th Century, developed into the political power struggle of the 20th Century, resulting in the partitioning of India and the emergence of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan" and "explains the principal reasons for the conflict between the two nations; the events leading to the War of 1971; the aftermath of the war in India and Pakistan; the State of Emergency in India; the 1977 elections in both countries; the post-election disturbances and the military take-over in Pakistan; and the current moves toward rapprochement."

Gift of Clifford Manshardt, 1984.

University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Finding Aid Author
Kelin Baldridge
Finding Aid Date
2017 March 10
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"Transition – The Shipmans of Bombay: 1839-1947," bound typescript, 1972.
Box 1 Folder 1-2
"When Religion Divides: A Story of India and Pakistan," typescript draft, chapters 1-19 and bibliography , after 1977.
Box 1 Folder 3-5

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