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Margaret Naumburg was born in New York City on May 14, 1890, when the United States was poised almost exactly between the Civil War and World War I. Sigmund Freud, whose work would affect her life so profoundly, would not use the term "psychoanalysis" for another five years, and the American medical establishment was not yet aware of his work. In her life Naumburg had two prominent careers based on Freud's insights into the workings of the human psyche. In the first, she played an important role in the progressive education movement in the United States through her founding of the Walden School, where psychoanalytic principles were central. In the second, she was a pioneer in the emerging field of art therapy.
This future teacher's memories of public school were very bleak:
She then went to the Horace Mann School, a private school which was founded as a site for experimental efforts by the students of Teachers College. The change seems to have made little difference to her. School was one source of bleakness in a generally grim childhood. She recalled wishing, at the age of ten or twelve, "to penetrate and experience the life outside herself. For other people's lives seemed full and varied, her own, empty and monotonous." As an adolescent, she captured her "attitude of injured withdrawal" by putting up on her wall the motto, "In order to avoid criticism, do nothing, say nothing, be nothing." She had two older sisters, Alice and Florence, and a younger brother, Robert. Her relationship with her mother was very difficult, and although she was fond of her father, his presence in her papers is minimal. Under these circumstances, she looked up to Florence, eight years older, as a substitute mother. Florence was beautiful and artistic, two qualities Margaret would long for throughout her life. At a time of reflection in the 1920s, Margaret would confess that she had wanted to be Florence.
My earliest recollections of school are of the hard wooden benches, the rigid posture, often hands behind the back, and the enforced silence of school periods. The overactive, dominant, shrill teacher, and the meek and intimidated children. I still recall the relief when gongs rang and there was a break from the silent tension for lunch and the playground. The monotony of learning arithmetic and learning to read was broken by learning to sing scales to the teacher's pitch-pipe. Art meant drawing cubes and pyramids. 
Barnard College awarded Margaret Naumburg a B.A. in 1912. She had studied with philosopher John Dewey, whose educational principles would later be important to her as a contrast to her own priorities as an educator. A future career in education was far from her mind then: "When I graduated from college I thought that the one profession I must avoid was becoming an educator. This attitude had been engendered by my own sense of boredom and futility in so many of the courses I endured both in school and college." Her ambitions were unclear, yet in the spring of her senior year she was finding her way into new currents of thought. She read an early article in McClure's Magazine about Maria Montessori's work in Italy. She also "had through a friend been able to read one of the first papers, published in the United States, by Dr. A. A. Brill on Freud and psychoalysis [sic]. I did not realize, as yet, how deeply this psychoanalytic approach to the unconscious had won a response in my own unconscious."
Her plan for the fall of 1912 was to start graduate work at the London School of Economics. During the intervening summer, she and her mother traveled in Europe. In Italy they met Montessori, who had opened a school based on sense training and attention to the phases of early childhood development in 1906 and begun training teachers in 1909. At first the London School of Economics seemed to be the right place for Naumburg. Taking a seminar with Sidney Webb, she threw herself into a study of the young cinematography industry. She sent her parents an enthusiastic letter: "these three months in London, including the work and the people, meant more to me than my four years of college." After those three months, however, she decided to leave in order to take advantage of an opportunity to study with Montessori in Italy.
In January 1913, she traveled there with fifteen Englishwomen. They were the first foreigners to undergo Montessori training. Naumburg, who could admire deeply but was also fiercely independent, wanted very much to be in the forefront in everything she did. She wrote her parents that she felt "quite sure it's the chance of a lifetime to be able to get into this work when it is still just at the start." Again it started off well, but the sense of satisfaction did not last. Naumburg's enthusiasm for the Montessori method waned and a personality conflict arose between these two intellectual, strong-willed women. Naumburg later recalled, "I saw a good deal of her personally in the first part of the course. Later in the term when she took me for a drive with her she asked me why I had withdrawn from her and I told her the truth. That I found her authoritarian in imposing her ideas and was not concerned with accepting everything she said without question."
Later in the year she was back in New York. Waldo Frank, her future husband, wrote of her at this time in his memoirs: "Margaret was a beautiful woman, dark, with great luminous eyes and a dynamic compassion that was not ready to settle for less than a totally new world. She had just returned from Rome where she studied primary education with Maria Montessori... she spoke of Freud as if there stirred in her a prescience of the psychological revolution Freud would bring to the world in the next five decades." The first letters from Naumburg to Frank in the Waldo Frank Papers date from 1914, at which time the two are clearly already involved in an intense relationship. They married in 1916.
According to Frank, he was introduced to Naumburg by their mutual friend Claire Raphael. Raphael was Naumburg's partner in her earliest educational efforts. Together they ran a Montessori class at the Henry Street Settlement during the 1913-1914 school year. From 1914 to 1916, they ran a Montessori class at the Leete School, where they rented a room. During 1915 they were also conducting a Montessori class at Public School No. 4 in the Bronx. The New York City Board of Education approved this class as an experiment. However, after months of struggling to get supplies and even heat from the school system, Naumburg resigned in January 1916. After the two years at the Leete School, Naumburg, now without Raphael, moved The Children's School into its own home and added grades to continue to teach the children who had started in the kindergarten. Sometime after the 1921-1922 school year, the students objected to being described as children and the school became the Walden School.
During the years from 1914 to 1917, Margaret Naumburg was undergoing Jungian analysis with Beatrice Hinkle. Florence, who by then was married to lawyer and poet Melville Cane and was an art teacher at the school, also worked with Hinkle. Naumburg encouraged all Walden teachers toward analysis. In 1917 she published an article titled "A Direct Method of Education." On a typescript of the article, she later wrote, "This published in 1917 was as far as I know the first application of the principles of psychoanalysis to Education." In it she argued the need for change and the opportunity which psychoanalysis provided:
Up to the present, our methods of education have dealt only with the conscious or surface mental life of the child. The new analytic psychology has, however, demonstrated that the unconscious mental life which is the outgrowth of the child's instincts plays a greater rôle than the conscious... This discovery of the fundamental sources of thought and action must bring about a readjustment in education. School problems can no longer be dealt with as they appear on the surface, for our deeper knowledge must direct our attention to the deeper realities beneath.
A. A. Brill, the psychiatrist whose article on Freud she had read years earlier, became a parent at the school, and Naumburg sought additional analysis with him.
By 1922 Naumburg was exhausted. The fund-raising efforts necessary to keep the Children's School running had little to do with education. She wrote a letter to parents indicating that she would close the school. The parents at the school did not want it to close. Naumburg, however, began to withdraw and turned the direction of the school over to Margaret Pollitzer and C. Elizabeth Goldsmith, teachers at Walden.
Naumburg was also dealing with the birth of her son Thomas in 1922. Her feelings about motherhood were profoundly ambiguous, not least because her marriage to Frank was disintegrating. In Frank's words, "We had wanted to live openly together because we loved each other. She was an educator of whom respectability was expected; therefore we had to be married. But it was understood between us that we were not really married. And I kept the matter clear by my infidelities, of which I always told her. The birth of my first son changed my heart; I wanted now to be truly married to my wife. But it was too late; she had suffered too much." Adding to the strains on their marriage was Naumburg's relationship with the author Jean Toomer. After a year of correspondence with Frank, Toomer moved to New York City in May 1923. Soon after, he met Naumburg and they quickly formed an intense bond. In 1924, Naumburg and her son shifted to Reno, where she had to establish residency for six months before she could get a divorce. Shortly after Naumburg arrived in Reno, Toomer joined her. They had decided to test the experience of living together as if married before marrying. In July, however, he left for New York City and stayed there briefly before leaving for France to learn from a man in whom both he and Naumburg were intensely interested.
Before leaving for Reno, they had attended a dance performance by the followers of Georges Ivanovitch Gurdjieff. Gurdjieff was a writer, dance teacher, philosopher, and guru, born in Russian Armenia and relocated to France by way of Central Asia. ̶ "The Work," as the efforts and focus of Gurdjieff's followers were called, was for a time highly fashionable among the intellectual and literary Greenwich Village set, which included Naumburg, Toomer, and Frank. Naumburg's divorce was final in Sept ember 1924. Upon her return she became increasingly involved in the New York Gurdjieffian community, which was under the guidance of A. R. Orage.
Gurdjieff promoted personal development through bringing the intellectual, emotional, and instinctual centers of the self together into harmony. The disciplines that would help followers attain this goal included self-observation, Gurdjieff's sacred da nces, and study. Naumburg's Gurdjieffian period is well represented in the collection and reveals her personal thoughts to an unusual degree because of the group's emphasis on "formulation," the effort to observe and write about one's thoughts, emotions, actions, and reactions in a detached way. Several formulations from the winter of 1924 and spring of 1925 are preserved. They focus intently on Toomer, who otherwise does not appear in the collection. She noted a lessening of intensity in their relationship in January, and in May she described racial tensions in their relationship, particularly those arising from Tommer's leadership of a Gurdjieffian group in Harlem. In 1926 their relationship ended.
In addition to leading the groups in which followers worked on their development, Orage gave lecture series on literature in order to earn money to support Gurdjieff and his work. These developed into workshops for writers. Naumburg attended lectures in 1927 and 1928. Both Melville Cane and Toomer were attenders as well. No explicit link connects these workshops and Naumburg's writings, but after a year of lectures and workshops, Orage suggested that each participant publish an article or book on a sub ject well known to him or her. This is at exactly the time when Naumburg wrote The Child and the World, her first book, published in 1928. Each chapter is a dialogue meant to enlighten readers about the workings of a modern school, certainly a subject Naumburg knew well. Also at this time Naumburg began work on Sunflower and Cypress, a play about Vincent and Theo van Gogh, of which she would draft numerous versions and which she continued to revisit throughout her life.
Two to three years later, Naumburg severed her ties to both Gurdjieff and Orage. In the place of that community she became involved in another occult group, Pojodag House. Pojodag drew on alchemy, astrology, mediums, and a combination of ancient Egyptian myth and Christian religious elements. Naumburg's younger brother Robert and her sister and brother-in-law Florence and Melville Cane were all involved at Pojodag House. All these individuals then shifted to the trance medium Eileen Garrett. As 1933 began, Margaret was "sitting" with Garrett, that is, meeting with Garrett and recording her words spoken while in a trance.
Garrett was born in Ireland and had worked as a trance medium at the British College of Psychic Science and other spiritualist societies. She came to New York City for six months in 1931 under the auspices of the American Society for Psychical Research, then returned in 1933. Naumburg made and saved transcripts of many discussions with three "control" personalities, referred to as Uvani, Tehuti, and Abdul Latif, through the person of Garrett, referred to in these discussions as "the instrument." Naumburg and others in the circle around Garrett considered themselves serious researchers, because rather than attempting through an otherworldly connection to obtain information about or contact dead relatives, they were pursuing questions of occult knowledge and higher consciousness. One characteristic of this investigative approach was the keeping of detailed records of their sittings.
Naumburg's collaboration with Garrett throughout the 1930s passed through several stages. Naumburg accompanied Garrett to laboratory studies of her mediumistic abilities conducted by researchers in England and by J. B. Rhine of Duke University's parapsychology laboratory. Naumburg also gathered materials in hopes of writing a scientific and psychological book about Garrett. In this period she was generally negative about psychology because the field did not accept or accommodate the aspects of consciousness with which she was concerned. She consulted Tehuti about everything, including both her creative writing and the writing she undertook in cooperation with Garrett; social relationships; the possible development of her own psychic abilities; and her future direction.
In 1934 Edward Hall began to share Naumburg's appointments with Garrett. He faced severe financial difficulties including debts and tax suits, but he was also part of a business that supplied materials for arts and crafts programs. He and Naumburg planned to start an arts and crafts school and Naumburg worked on a plan for an exhibition of art of the Western Hemisphere called "The Three Americas" in order to raise money for the school. The exhibition, meant to travel, only took place in an abbreviated form in Mexico City. It cannot have raised much, if any, money. The Universal School of Handicrafts did open, and Naumburg served on its Board of Directors until she withdrew in 1942.
Toward the end of the decade, Naumburg devoted her efforts to gathering autobiographical information from Garrett. In a later letter to Rhine, Naumburg claimed that she had not only organized but written Garrett's autobiography, My Life as a Search for the Meaning of Mediumship. She was also to have written an introduction under her own name, but had the whole project taken from her to preserve the illusion of Garrett's authorship. For unclear reasons, a complete break between the two women followed by 1940. This must have been a very difficult time for Naumburg. She was separated from the person and the projects around which she had organized her life for the previous ten years. Yet in this time she somehow conceived of and moved toward her second career in art psychotherapy.
Naumburg did not have recognized training in this field and she could not present herself as a professional therapist, although her principles as an educator had been built on psychology. So she took her first steps from the foundation of education, the field in which she was recognized, by seeking opportunities to combine art education and psychotherapy through art. Although she tended to portray herself as working in isolation, if not in opposition to the world, the topic of art as therapy was receiving increasing attention at that time. In 1941 Anne Anastasi and John Foley published a four-part survey of literature on "artistic behavior in the abnormal." The first three parts are in Naumburg's resource materials as reprints. In 1943 Naumburg joined the Committee on Art in American Education and Society, a group based at the Museum of Modern Art. They had an art therapy study group, from whose lecture series Naumburg saved some outlines.
An increasing interest in occupational therapy inspired by the entry of the United States into World War II and the resulting injuries also fed interest in art therapy. Because occupational therapists wanted military status for their role in working with the war wounded, the Public Education Committee of the American Occupational Therapy Association was publicizing occupational therapy nationally. Naumburg's relationship with the field of occupational therapy was an imbalanced one. Throughout much of her career, she would be dismissive about the methods of occupational therapy, yet occupational therapists were in general an audience receptive to her ideas. Aspiring occupational therapists bolstered her art therapy course enrollments in the 1950s and 1960s, and Naumburg received and accepted invitations to address professional gatherings of occupational therapists.
One of Naumburg's earliest lectures on psychotherapy was given at the 1941 Annual Institute of Chief Occupational Therapists in New York. She was invited by Eleanor Slagle, director of the Bureau of Mental Hygiene Occupational Therapy for the State of New York Department of Mental Health and fellow board member of the Universal School of Handicrafts. Attempting to bridge the fields of education and psychotherapy, Naumburg titled her talk, "Can Modern Educational Principles Be of Use to Psychotherapists?" She told the occupational therapists, "Those who work in the field of mental hygiene and those active in modern education, should no longer be kept apart by the barriers of their professional training... For those who enter the world of education, I have, for years, been a persistent advocate of more training in psychiatry, and I hope that I shall not fail to persuade you, in the field of mental hygiene, to recognize some important implications in the new education." Her attempt to be interdisciplinary was not entirely successful: the text of the lecture was rejected by Mental Hygiene magazine with the comment that it was "better adapted to an educational journal."
Naumburg began the decade by briefly working at Bellevue Hospital. Her original contact there was Harriet Ayer Seymour. In the late 1930s Seymour had been one of those who consulted Garrett's controls, once sitting jointly with Naumburg, and had already at that time been interested in music therapy. In 1940 she was head of the Music Committee of the Hospitals. Naumburg worked with children under psychiatrist Lauretta Bender and with adolescent boys in a drama therapy group under psychiatrist Frank Curran. Then, however, in 1941 at a meeting of occupational therapists, she met Nolan D. C. Lewis, the primary mentor and champion of her early art therapy career. Lewis was already interested in art expression and psychotherapy, having published two articles on art in psychiatric treatment, and he was interested in what Naumburg had to say. He invited her to do research at the New York Psychiatric Institute, where he was director.
By October 1941, Naumburg was working with three young boys who were patients there During her time at the Psychiatric Institute, she worked with one boy diagnosed with Froehlich's syndrome and another with tic-like movements, but mainly the boys were institutionalized because they were uncontrollable. Their files reported their diagnoses as "Primary Behavior Disorder." Naumburg paid to provide pastels, tempera paints, and plasticine for the children. Appalled by the repetitive, unimaginative nature of the art produced in school art programs (including the school program at the Institute), Naumburg worked to get the children to produce images of their own - images based on their experiences, dreams, and fantasies. She kept minutely detailed records of what happened in each session, including her conversations with the boys, descriptions of their art work, and the boys' comments about their art.
The art was full of violent images inspired by their perceptions of World War II. In 1943 Naumburg published her first art therapy article, "Children's Art Expression and War," in The Nervous Child. In the next few years, Naumburg shifted from working with young boys to work with a succession of schizophrenic adolescent girls, and she published a series of articles based on her case studies done at the Psychiatric Institute. In "A Study of the Art Work of a Behavior-Problem Boy as It Relates to Ego Development and Sexual Enlightenment," Naumburg included a photograph of clay figures created by the patient to depict pregnancy. The next photograph (Fig. 10) shows an "ancient Mexican-Aztec figure of the Goddess of Childbirth... [which] suggests the kinship in feeling and expression between the archaic and child-like forms of art." Connecting patients' spontaneous art and ancient or primitive art was of interest to Naumburg throughout her art therapy career, an inclination present already in her work with her first patients.
She collected her first six articles into a book, Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy in 1947. It was published in the Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs series, of which Lewis was series editor. He wrote a foreword for the book, describing Naumburg's work as "progressive steps in a type of research that promises much for the future." In a review, education writer Agnes Benedict praised the work but also raised the specter of the creation of "amateur therapists": "The book will be invaluable to parents and teachers in helping them to understand the behavior of normal children without encouraging them to turn amateur psychotherapist, or to read meanings into children's art work that are not there." The perception that Naumburg wanted to train therapists outside established channels would recurin her career and hamper her progress.
Because of the highly visual nature of her records, Naumburg also used exhibits throughout her career to try to bring her work to the attention of a wider professional audience. She showed her first exhibit at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in 1946 and worked on two exhibit projects in 1947. She was an exhibitor at the Fifth International Congress of Pediatrics in New York. Her exhibit, "Art Therapy in Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior Problem Children," was captured with touches of skepticism or parody in "The Talk of the Town" in the July 26, 1947, New Yorker:
Next, attracted by some vivid paintings and crayon drawings entitled "City Fire," "Burning Leaves," "Automobile on Fire," "Burning of the Normandie," "Fireworks at the World's Fair," and "Bozo, the Fire-Eater," we paused before a booth marked "Art Therapy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior Problem Children." "These pictures were all done by a nine-year-old boy with a compulsive neurosis and a fire-setting proclivity," the lady in charge was saying to a bug-eyed young man. "Note the fire-eater at the circus saying Yum, yum. Isn't that amusing symbolically?"
"Troubled Waters," an exhibition tracing the work and progress of one of the schizophrenic girls with whom Naumburg had worked, was planned for the Philadelphia Museum of Art. After only one month on display, however, the exhibition was taken down at Naumburg's insistence, because she did not agree with the presentation of her work.
Meanwhile, Naumburg's practice was shifting away from work in an institutional setting with children and adolescents to the private treatment of adults in her apartment, meeting with them weekly or even more often. A short-lived collaboration studying hard-of-hearing and stuttering children through Vassar College's Department of Child Study led to a meeting between Naumburg and a Vassar student who would be the subject of one of Naumburg's most thoroughly developed case studies. This young woman, who first approached Naumburg because of interest in art therapy and then sought help for obsessive masturbation, worked with Naumburg for three years. Naumburg would produce two exhibits, "The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Art Productions of a College Girl" and "The Survival Value of Fantasy Projection," and a book, Psychoneurotic Art, based on the case. Over the years, several would-be students of art therapy who sought out Naumburg became her clients first, because she believed that aspiring therapists must have therapy to deal with their own conflicts before they could deal effectively with others. It was the same principle she had a pplied to herself and the teachers at the Walden School.
As the 1950s began, art therapy was beginning to be more widely recognized as a field and Margaret Naumburg was beginning to be recognized as one of its most important figures. A Newsweek article about the 1949 exhibit, "The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Art Productions of a College Girl," proclaimed, "Art therapy - the use of drawings for studying the emotional problems of both children and adults - is now an established psychiatric procedure." It continued, "One of the best-known pioneers in the field of spontaneous art expression is Dr. Margaret Naumburg, 59-year-old, New York-born artist-psychiatrist, who has devoted the last ten years of her life to her own form of art therapy." Yet as she was neither doctor, artist, nor psychiatrist, she continued to struggle to find her professional place in the world.
Although she was without institutional affiliation, she continued to work and write independently. She published Schizophrenic Art: Its Meaning in Psychotherapy in 1950 and Psychoneurotic Art: Its Use in Psychotherapy in 1953. Thomas A. C. Rennie, on staff at the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic in New York, wrote the preface to Schizophrenic Art and in it acknowledged Naumburg's status: "The main purpose of the book... is to define a new approach to psychotherapy. This approach in the hands of Miss Naumburg with her special training and insight is clearly a valid one. It is important because it represents an essentially pioneer effort." In fact, while Naumburg does use the phrase "art therapy," she shies away from defining it directly, describing a process in which the therapist is almost invisible:
When inner experiences of a patient are projected into plastic form, art often becomes a more immediate mode of expression than words... Some patients do not immediately recognize the significance of their spontaneous art; but as therapy proceeds they usually arrive at awareness of its symbolic meaning. This is the reason that it is unnecessary for the therapist to interpret directly to the patient what his spontaneous creations mean.
To which approach one reviewer responded, "The theoretical exposition of the technique is frequently rather speculative and not always convincing."
In her introduction to Psychoneurotic Art three years later, Naumburg faced the issue more squarely:
Art therapy is psychoanalytically oriented, recognizing the fundamental importance of the unconscious... Art therapy enables the patient to translate the interior images of his unconscious into pictorial projections; the creation of such symbolic forms establishes a primary basis of communication with the therapist. Spontaneous graphic art becomes a form of symbolic speech which may serve as a substitute for words or as a stimulus which leads to an increase of verbalization in the course of therapy.
In the following year, however, she received a challenge to go still further.
In March 1954 the annual meeting of the American Orthopsychiatric Association took place in New York City. Naumburg chaired a symposium on art therapy, "The Use of Spontaneous Art in Psychotherapy." The program promised three papers, including one by Naumburg herself, followed by discussion by René Spitz and Ernst Kris. Spitz, unable to attend, sent a written discussion to be read at the symposium. In it he wrote,
Both Miss Naumburg and Dr. Rabinovitch [another symposium speaker] discuss to a certain extent the technique which they have applied. Nevertheless, I am not clear in my mind about the essential aspects of the therapeutical situation on one hand, of the therapeutic procedure on the other. I feel very strongly that at some point we will have to differentiate quite clearly the basically different aspects of analytical therapy and of art therapy... I would like to enter a plea to the art therapists to draw up a parallel between the procedures used by them and contrast this to the classical analytical procedures - such a confrontation would help us greatly in understanding many aspects of art therapy which at this point are not sufficiently clear - at least they are not so to me.
In the margin next to his "plea," Naumburg wrote, "Answer this." She contemplated this comparison for the next ten years.
In addition to the publication of her books, Naumburg began to teach privately, offering a ten-week seminar at her home. She also began to have opportunities to offer courses at institutions such as the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital and New York's Postgraduate Center for Psychotherapy. She gave a series of ten lectures in Washington, D.C., in 1956 sponsored by the District of Columbia Occupational Therapy Association. The Washington lectures brought Elinor Ulman, a therapist and later an important figure in art therapy in her own right, into contact with Naumburg. Five years later, Ulman would found the Bulletin of Art Therapy to provide a forum for art therapists from all over the country. For more than ten years, she and Naumburg would correspond, occasionally in fierce disagreement but mostly in mutual appreciation.
While working on many projects, however, Naumburg did not have a consistent source of income. She applied in 1952 for a Guggenheim Fellowship, proposing to write a book titled The Image Speaks: The Dynamics of Art in the Unconscio us of Modern and Ancient Man, "to make available - not only to scholars, artists, psychiatrists and psychologists but also to the general reader - data on the psychodynamics and meaning of symbolic art." She did not receive a fellowship. Throughout the 1950s she continued to accept speaking opportunities that would not have furthered her professional progress, such as the lecture she gave on "Some Psychological Implications of Color Preferences"̶ to the National Society for Decorative Design in 1956.
She also pursued long-term teaching positions, but they proved difficult to get. In 1949 she hoped to offer a course at the New School for Social Research. After reviewing a proposed outline, Clara W. Mayer, Dean of the School of Philosophy and Liberal Arts sent Naumburg her conclusions: "the subject interests me very much and I have tried... to see whether there is enough that the successful practitioners like yourself could really teach. I find it utterly elusive, except insofar as every form of expression sheds light on the total personality. In this sense it is an adjunct to therapy which can hardly be profitably taught by itself." Naumburg responded in self-defense, "The lecture plan... was not meant to be, in any sense, a training course to make art therapists, as you interpreted it," but the discussion was not renewed.
In 1953 another opportunity opened up. Starting in the fall of 1953, teachers participating in guidance work in New York had to take additional courses in psychology, and as a result, Naumburg was hired by the New School to teach "Dynamic Psychology in the Creative Arts." Mindful of how little leeway she had between teaching about art therapy and teaching art therapists, she warily declared to her students in her first lecture, "Some of you who teach may be wondering whether... I am advocating that teachers become therapists. No, nothing of that kind. No teacher today, I believe, in any field, can do an adequate job, without understanding how the unconscious motivates the responses of their students and themselves." Hanna Yaxa Kwiatkowska, who later developed the use of group art therapy for family therapy at the National Institute for Mental Health, was a student in this course. Both Naumburg and her students hoped that a workshop class would follow, but the New School declined to offer it.
In the summer of 1958 she taught "Art Education and Personality," the start of a seven-year relationship with the Art Education Department of New York University. Her lecture notes and syllabi show that this introductory course changed little over the fourteen years she taught it. In it she introduced ways drawing was used for diagnostic purposes, Florence Cane's "scribble" technique of creating spontaneous pictures, and case studies. She gave a survey of art therapy mostly through her own articles and case studies. Later she began to teach a second course at New York University, "Case Studies of Pupils with Emotional Blocks in Creativity." This was essentially the workshop course that she had not been able to develop at the New School. A description of "Art Education and Personality" ("How certain techniques, developed in Art Therapy, can be applied to the teaching of the normal art student will be discussed") makes it clear that Naumburg still had to approach the subject of teaching art therapy cautiously. Nevertheless, through these courses Naumburg introduced students from a wide range of backgrounds to art therapy and began or aided the training of many professional art therapists. Several had already been inspired by her books, and they traveled long distances to study with her in her summer courses.
Early in 1958, Naumburg had applied for certification as a psychologist. To requests for records of her graduate work in psychology, she replied, listing her professional affiliations and concluding, "I hope that this letter makes clear to you why, after my own analysis from 1914-1917, I was unable to find the graduate courses in clinical or dynamic psychology that I sought at that time. I therefore had to pioneer in developing and applying dynamic psychology in retraining teachers myself in a modern school. I believe that my membership in the recognized psychological associations is evidence of my contribution to educational and clinical psychology." Naumburg received notice of her rejection in September. Although there is no evidence of a second application in the collection, she did re-apply successfully, for she was issued a license in Psychology in March, 1961.
At the beginning of the 1960s, Naumburg felt that art therapy had achieved a professional identity. In her catalog for "The Power of the Image," an exhibit at the American Psychiatric Association annual meeting for 1960, she proclaimed, "Analytically oriented art therapy has now, in its twentieth year, established itself firmly as a primary and an adjunctive method of treatment for both neurotic and psychotic patients." Another sign of this development was the founding of the Bulletin of Art Therapy by Elinor Ulman in 1961. Ulman's inaugural editorial recognized Naumburg's importance: "As we launch the first journal devoted to art therapy, this specialized discipline has already an honorable history and the beginning of worldwide recognition. For the past twenty years, starting in this country with the pioneering efforts of Margaret Naumburg and in England with the work of Adrian Hill, the use of painting and clay modelling in the treatment of illness has been developing." Naumburg, however, was not as quick to recognize the effort of her colleague. In the obituary for Naumburg in the American Journal of Art Therapy (as the Bulletin was renamed in 1969), Ulman recalled, "[Naumburg] viewed the founding of this journal with her customary skepticism and politely refused an invitation to write the lead article for its first issue. We are proud that our initial effort passed muster, leading Ms. Naumburg to contribute an article to our second (Winter 1961) issue."
Art therapy was at this point a broad enough field to include subgroups with different perspectives. As Ulman explained in an article in the second issue, "some artists put the emphasis on art and some on therapy... In the United States the secon d group - emphasis on therapy - found its spokesman earlier in the person of Margaret Naumburg." The author of the lead article in the first issue, "Art and Emptiness: New Problems in Art Education and Art Therapy," was Edith Kramer, preeminent representative of the first group. Maintaining her identity as an artist as well as an art therapist, Kramer's view of art therapy held that acts of creation were inherently therapeutic rather than a form of nonverbal communication used in therapy. Ulman noted, "in 1958 she became the second member of our nascent profession in the United States to publish at book length," and then attempted to depict Naumburg and Kramer's views of each other from opposite ends of a spectrum: "By Naumburg's recent definitions, Kramer is an art teacher rather than an art therapist. Into Kramer's ideological scheme, Naumburg fits as a psychotherapist, not an art therapist." Naumburg's typical approach to art therapists outside of her circle, in other countries or even in the United States, was to ignore them. There is only one letter from Kramer in Naumburg's correspondence, and no signs of awareness on Naumburg's part of Kramer's book or later of her presence at the New School for Social Research, where she taught an art therapy course in the Department of Art Interpretation during the same years when Naumburg taught art therapy in the Department of Psychology (demonstrating the truth of Ulman's distinction between the emphasis on art and the emphasis on therapy).
Naumburg was by this time fighting against the inexorable progress of age. After several re-appointments past the statutory age of retirement at New York University, university officials refused to re-appoint her again after the spring of 1965. Coming at a moment when Naumburg hoped to develop a degree program in art therapy, the termination was a cruel disappointment. She attempted to persuade university officials of the unique nature of her courses and marshaled the support of her brother-in-law, but in vain. She and her courses, however, found a new home at the New School for Social Research, where she continued to teach through 1972.
Naumburg's last book, Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practices, came out in 1966. Presenting case studies of women suffering from an ulcer, alcoholism, and depression, Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy was Naumburg's answer to Spitz's 1954 challenge. The title reflected her desire to demonstrate that art therapy was distinct from Freudian psychoanalysis. Through 1965, Naumburg described her approach to art therapy as analytically or psychoanalytically oriented, but from 1966 onward she consistently referred to her method as dynamically oriented art therapy, even changing the word "analytically" in her earlier works when she had reason to revisit them.
Naumburg devoted part of her introduction to a description of Spitz's concerns. She attributed some to such causes as "a misunderstanding" and "a superficial and mistaken interpretation." A reviewer writing from a Freudian viewpoint responded in kind: "[the book] is marred by her polemical tone and her rather shallow understanding of freudian [sic] psychoanalysis." Some art therapists acclaimed Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy as the field's first textbook. A dissenting voice said, "Miss Naumbuerg [sic] seems biased about the value of other people's art therapy and seems to credit some for doing well because she trained them. I kept wishing that she would tolerate other theories of art therapy, or even consider them as authentic efforts..." and might have been describing Naumburg's embattled approach throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s.
Despite her fighting spirit, her past began to rival her present in importance. She began to receive requests for information on her role in progressive education. She was becoming recognized as part of the history of education in the United States, an d her role in the field of art therapy began to shift in a similar direction. No longer the keynote speaker at conferences, she began to be invited to provide a historical perspective on art therapy. In 1966 the program for a conference on "Art Therapy and General Hospital Psychiatry" lists Naumburg's talk as "The History and Development of Art Therapy," but her lecture notes reveal how she preferred to consider the topic: "The Development of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy."
At the 1968 annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, three group exhibits on aspects of art therapy were on display. Naumburg participated in "Aspects of Art Therapy," organized by Carolyn Refsnes, a former student. This exhibit also included Edith Kramer, Hanna Yaxa Kwiatkowska, and Elinor Ulman. One of the other two exhibits, "Art Therapy as a Diagnostic Tool," displayed sculpture and painting by patients at Philadelphia's Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital. It was organized by Paul Fink, M.D., and Myra Levick, Hahnemann's director of education and art therapy director. Hahnemann was poised to become a new center of American art therapy. In the 1968-1969 academic year, they offered for the first time a ten-month internship program. Students successfully completing the program were to receive certificates, making Hahnemann the first art therapy certification program.
Art therapists from all three exhibits met for lunch during the annual meeting. They discussed the possibility of establishing a national art therapy organization and agreed to meet again in the fall. Approximately eighty people attended a December mee ting at Hahnemann. The minutes record tensions between the Hahnemann organizers and attenders who perceived the Hahnemann group as supporting the control of art therapy by psychiatrists. The latter group included Naumburg and some of her students. Felice Cohen of the Child Guidance Center of Houston moved to elect Myra Levick as temporary president, but Ulman thought that position was rightfully Naumburg's. The meeting avoided this conflict by electing a steering committee to prepare a constitution and by laws. Seven were nominated for the committee, of whom five were elected. Ulman and Levick, who did later become the organization's first president, were among the five. The two not elected were Naumburg and Kramer.
The next meeting took place in Louisville in June 1969. Naumburg was not present. Those attending adopted the constitution and the by-laws of the steering committee, bringing into existence the American Art Therapy Association. The by-laws defined classes of membership, including Honorary Life Membership, "to be conferred in recognition of distinguished service in the field of art therapy." It was announced that the outgoing Steering Committee recommended to the incoming Executive Committee that Naumburg be invited to become the Association's first Honorary Life Member. The announcement was greeted with applause and approved by all present. Thus at the first annual meeting of the American Art Therapy Association in September 1971, Naumburg received a plaque designating her as the first Honorary Life Member. But tensions persisted between Naumburg and her supporters on the one hand and "the Philadelphia group" on the other for at least a few more years, as evidenced by correspondence in the American Journal of Art Therapy and an article by Fink, Levick, and Goldman with responses from Kwiatkowska and Naumburg in the International Journal of Psychiatry in 1973.
By this time, Naumburg, who had for decades been cast as the pioneer who created the future, was ready to start thinking about the past. In 1972, Teachers College Press republished Naumburg's first art therapy book, with a new introduction by Naumburg, under the title An Introduction to Art Therapy: Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy. This book received the Ernst Kris Prize from the American Society of Psychopathology of Expression in 1973. Teachers College Library also expressed interest in housing Naumburg's papers, but only was interested in the papers from Naumburg's years of work in progressive education, leading her to look elsewhere for a home for the entire collection.
Naumburg taught her last courses at the New School in the fall of 1972. In December she was hoping to find somewhere else to teach in New York, but early in 1973, when she met with a lawyer to draw up a new will, she was taking stock of her situation and could consider leaving the city where she had lived all her life: "I am quite alone in New York. My son and his family live in Cambridge. And I might at some future time move to Cambridge in order to work on another book." In September she moved. During the intervening summer she visited Harvard, interested in the possibility of obtaining a fellowship at the Radcliffe Institute. She wanted to organize all the materials she had kept from her long career - lectures, course materials, exhibits, client artwork and records, and publications. When this work was done, she envisioned making a gift of her papers to Harvard's Schlesinger Library. She did not receive a fellowship and may not have even completed the application process.
Because of the re-publication of Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy with its new introduction and perhaps also because of her th oughts of organizing her work, Naumburg wrote many rough drafts at this time about her place in the history of education and the history of art therapy. Repeatedly, in increasingly illegible handwriting, she wrote versions of how she founded the Walden School, how she first entered the world of art therapy, and how she influenced its development. She seemed still to be fighting old battles, most of all the battle to be accepted by other professionals on her own terms.
At the end of 1969, Naumburg had what she called "a sudden and unexpected illumination" as the result of a conversation with psychologist Lawrence LeShan. Naumburg recorded both sides of the conversation in writing, almost as if she were composing a formulation for Orage:
As I spoke of the conflicts and resistances I met to any questioning of the traditionally accepted methods first of education and then later of psychotherapy the psychologist commented,
"You don't seem to realize that you have all your life tried first in the field of Education and more recently in the area of psychotherapy to battle the establishment believing you could change it. Actually what you have stood for and worked to change in the "Establishment" of Education and Psychotherapy belongs not in these institutions of the past, but in the promise of this new young generation of today, which is really preparing to establish new spiritual values in living."
The psychologist's comment startled me. In a flash I recognized the truth of his comments about my misplaced hopes of being able to modify the rigidity of the traditional values of education or the assumptions of classical forms of psychotherapy.
The collection comes to an end soon after her move to Brookline, Massachusetts, although she lived for nearly another decade. She died on February 26, 1983.
 "Emergence of the Individual in Modern Education," Folder 2268.
 Orage formulations, late 1926?, Folder 4358.
 "MNs Early History," Folder 2050.
 Letter to Sol Cohen, January 25, 1967, Folder 147.
 "MNs early history," Folder 2050.
 Letter to Max and Therese Naumburg, December 1912, Folder 445.
 Letter to Max and Therese Naumburg, December 1912, Folder 445.
 Letter to Sol Cohen, January 25, 1967, Folder 147.
 Waldo Frank, Memoirs of Waldo Frank, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1973), 199.
 Margaret Naumburg, "A Direct Method of Education," Bureau of Education Experiments Bulletin 4 ("Experimental Schools," 1917), 7.
 Frank, Memoirs, 206.
 Cynthia Earl Kerman and Richard Eldridge, The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987), 131-133.
 Louise Welch, Orage with Gurdjieff in America (Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul), 57-60.
 Eileen J. Garrett, My Life as a Search for the Meaning of Mediumship (New York: Oquaga Press, 1939).
 Glenn Gritzer, and Arnold Arluke. The Making of Rehabilitation: A Political Economy of Medical Specialization, 1890-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 105.
 "Can Modern Educational Principles...," p.2, Folder 2463.
 Letter from Elizabeth R. Boyan to Naumburg, March 18, 1941, Folder 455.
 "Phases of Hospital Research and Experience," Folder 2051.
 Psychiatric Quarterly 20 (January 1946), 74-112.
 N. D. C. Lewis in Margaret Naumburg. Studies of the "Free" Art Expression... (New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs, 1947), vi.
 Agnes E. Benedict, review of Studies of the "Free" Art Expression... In Parents' Magazine (December 1947).
 "Paintings and Passions," Newsweek, 13 June 1949, 47.
 Schizophrenic Art, Preface Draft, Folder 914.
 Schizophrenic Art , Foreword Draft, Folder 914.
 E. A. Bennet, review of Schizophrenic Art In British Journal of Medical Psychology, n.d.
 Psychoneurotic Art, Galleys, p. 3, Folder 981.
 Spitz, René A., Discussion, Folder 2675.
 Guggenheim Fellowship application, Folder 5250.
 Letter from Clara W. Mayer to Naumburg, March 17, 1949, Folder 450.
 Letter to Mayer, March 24, 1949, Folder 450
 Introductory lecture, p. 2-3, Folder 3779.
 Course announcement draft, Folder 3918.
 Letter to Joseph R. Sanders, February 4, 1958, Folder 674.
 E-mail communication, University of the State of New York, Office of Higher Education and the Professions, Record & Archives Unit.
 Bulletin of Art Therapy 1.1 (Fall 1961), 3.
 American Journal of Art Therapy 22.1 (October 1982), 10.
 Elinor Ulman, "Art therapy: problems of definition." Bulletin of Art Therapy 1.2 (Winter 1961), 11.
 Ulman, "Art therapy: problems of definition," 12, 17.
 Margaret Naumburg, Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practices(New York: Grune & Stratton, 1966), 17.
 Esman, Aaron H. Review of DOAT. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 1967.
 Ramsay, J. Bert. Review of DOAT. American Journal of Psychiatry 123.11 (May 1967).
 "News," American Journal of Art Therapy 9.1 (October 1969), 37.
 Notes for Wishod & Fisch, 1973, Folder 726.
The Margaret Naumburg Papers at the University of Pennsylvania contains materials documenting all the phases of her long and productive work life. The collection includes 182 boxes of documents, artwork, and images, along with 10 drawers of oversize ma terials. The documents include correspondence; copies of and materials for Naumburg's writings, lectures, and exhibit catalogs; materials for case studies; lecture notes for the courses she taught and papers her students wrote in those courses; and work by others that she collected and saved. Other media in the collection include slides, photographs, and audio recordings.
The Correspondence series consists of approximately 750 folders representing about 560 correspondents. Family members in the collection include Naumburg's parents, Max and Therese Naumburg, to whom she wrote while she was studying in Europe; her sister Florence Cane, an art teacher, and her brother-in-law Melville Cane, a lawyer and poet; her brother-in-law Joseph Proskauer, who was a judge on the New York State Supreme Court and who supported Naumburg's career financially; and her brother Robert Naumburg. There is very little correspondence with her ex-husband Waldo Frank in the collection; extensive correspondence between Naumburg and Frank may be found in the Waldo Frank Papers, also housed at the University of Pennsylvania. Correspondence with her son Thomas Frank is also minimal.
In connection with Naumburg's early career in progressive education, the collection preserves correspondence with John Dewey and Alvin S. Johnson, but there is relatively little correspondence from before 1930. Correspondents from the period between the late 1920s and 1940, when Naumburg was involved in occult and psychic inquiries include Gurdjieff associates Alfred R. Orage and Jeanne de Salzmann; trance medium Eileen Garrett; and psychic investigator J. B. Rhine. The majority of the series is devote d to correspondence related to her art therapy career. Correspondents in this area include art therapists Elinor Ulman and Hanna Kwiatkowska, psychiatrist Nolan D. C. Lewis, psychologist Gardner Murphy, and many other psychiatrists, psychologists, and stu dents of art therapy from the United States, Europe, and South America. There are relatively few letters from other art therapists. Edith Kramer, Diana Raphael Halliday, and Marguerite Sechehaye are each represented by a single letter to Naumburg with no response in the collection.
Small collections of correspondence are other series. Correspondence concerning Naumburg's experimental Montessori class in a public school has been filed in the Elementary Education series. Correspondence with clients or members of their families are filed in the Client Record series by client. Correspondence among the members of Eileen Garrett's circle and among the members of an ESP group have been filed in the Consciousness Investigations series.
Margaret Naumburg had two careers which were quite separate chronologically, although both drew on similar interests which engaged her throughout her lifetime. Both her writings and lectures are divided into subseries representing those two careers. Fr om 1913 through about 1924, Naumburg played a prominent role in progressive education through the founding and directing of the Children's School, later renamed the Walden School. A small but important series grouping materials from this period in Naumburg's life includes promotional materials for her early Montessori classes, records of her struggles with the Board of Education over an experimental Montessori class in a public school, and catalogs for and articles about The Walden School. She continued to save material about the Wa lden School even after severing her official ties to the school. The latest materials are connected with the school's 50th anniversary in 1964 and a memorial service for a teacher in 1971. A limited amount of correspondence with her sister Florence Cane provides a less public perspective on the early period.
In the Writings series, the first subseries collects Naumburg's writings concerning education. In 1928 she published a book, The Child and the World, based on her experience with the Children's School, represented in the collection by a book cover and reviews, which she saved. She also wrote articles on the Walden School, other progressive schools, progressive education, and American education in general. In addition, she reviewed books on education by other authors. Her writings on education demonstrate her early assimilation of Freudian psychology into her educational philosophy and therefore are part of the early history of Freudian analysis in the United States. The first subseries of the Lectures series consists of lec tures on educational topics. The total number of lectures is relatively small, but there are seven boxes of material from Naumburg's preparation for her 1932 series of twelve lectures, "Crisis in American Education."
Between the time when she distanced herself from the Walden School and the start of her second career as an art therapist, Naumburg was involved in intense self-searching, the records of which are gathered into the Consciousness Investigations series. Along with Waldo Frank, Jean Toomer, Carl Zigrosser, and many others of their acquaintance, in the late 1920s she immersed herself in the teachings and disciplines of G. I. Gurdjieff. As a result of this group's emphasis on "formulation," or self-observation, Naumburg's writings from this period are among the most revealing in the collection in terms of expressing her emotions, fears, aspirations, memories of childhood, and opinions of herself. They are also the only documents that reflect her intimate relationship with Toomer.
By 1933 Naumburg had broken with the Gurdjieffian community and associated herself with a trance medium well-known at the time, Eileen Garrett. Naumburg, turning briefly against Freudian psychology, was interested in learning about the "superconscious"" through the personalities who spoke through Garrett while she was in a trance state. Because of what Naumburg perceived as the scientific nature of her efforts, detailed record-keeping was essential. Thus the collection includes nearly ten boxes of transcripts of "sittings" with Garrett and also extensive notes for writing projects which Naumburg undertook with the guidance of Garrett's personalities. This is an extremely strong collection of materials on spiritualism and psychic research in the 1930s.
By 1940, however, Naumburg had once again broken from a past phase of life to begin a new one. Art therapy was to be the primary focus of the rest of her life, and as such, occupies about two-thirds of the collection. In the Psychotherapy subseries of the Writings series are Naumburg's notes and drafts for her three books about art therapy, one of which was republished late in her life. She also wrote and saved versions of numerous articles. The Psychotherapy subseries of the Lectures series collects her lectures on art therapy, which she gave to almost any group that would listen. The Exhibit s series includes materials from the exhibits which she assembled to show at professional conferences.
All of these endeavors were built on the foundation of her therapy work with individuals, first institutionalized children and adolescents, and later adult clients who sought her out or were referred to her by a few receptive psychologists or psychiatr ists. In the Client Records series are records of 23 juvenile patients and 24 adult clients. Many of the records are fragmentary, but those for the cases which she used in books or exhibits are extensive. The records include client artwork and photographs of client artwork, which are duplicated in the Slides and Photographs series; client writing about their artwork, dreams, and life issues; and Naumburg's detailed accounts of therapy sessions. All materials containing patient/client records are restricted from use until 2044.
Later in life Naumburg went on to teach art therapy courses at New York University and the New School for Social Research. From these courses she saved syllabi, lecture notes, and student questionnaires, which make up the Art Therapy Courses Series. The Student Work series, eight boxes of examples of book reviews and case studies by her students, adds more information about her work as a teacher of art therapy principles on the undergraduate and graduate levels.
The Proposals series combines more than one phase of Naumburg's life. She devoted some years during her time with Eileen Garrett to attempting to coordinate an exhibition of art of the Western hemisphere. She also proposed art therapy projects for financial support from foundations. She was involved, not willingly, in the development of the American Art Therapy Association. Finally, toward the end of her life, she hoped to find financial support for the organization of the materials she had saved from her long career.
One final large series is devoted to the materials by others which Naumburg collected and saved. The topics of these are wide-ranging, including art therapy, the medical or psychiatric problems of particular clients, art, and occupational therapy. The formats are similarly wide-ranging, including single articles (several signed by their authors), complete issues of periodicals, pamphlets, conference programs, directories, exhibit catalogs, bibliographies, and many pages of passages, which Naumburg copied by hand, from monograph sources.
Margaret Naumburg was not a collaborator or a networker with colleagues, although she was extremely supportive to many students. Except for art therapists who had been her students and a very few others with whom she formed a relationship, other art th erapists do not figure prominently in this collection. It records Naumburg's career in minute detail; it does not reveal her place in the field of art therapy, new and growing in her lifetime. Only with the discussions surrounding the formation of the American Art Therapy Association does it become clear that Naumburg and her contacts were one subgroup or school of art therapy. The collecti on, however, is an excellent record of the development of Naumburg's principles and, by extension, the principles of those who followed her.
The Margaret Naumburg Papers may be examined by researchers in the reading room of the Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania. Patient/client material is restricted from use until 2044. Permission to quote from and to publish unpublished materials must be requested in writing from the Curator of Manuscripts and Margaret Naumburg's literary executor.
Contains 17 series, including correspondence (12 boxes); elementary education materials (1 box); writings (32 boxes); lectures (18 boxes); exhibits (6 boxes); client records (22 boxes); art therapy courses (7 boxes); student work (8 boxes); consciousness investigations (19 boxes); proposals (2 boxes); biographical/professional information (1 box); works by others (17 boxes); miscellaneous (1 box); slides (8 boxes); photographs (8 boxes); photograph albums (3 boxes); and oversize (17 boxes + 10 map drawers, 4 framed paintings, 2 oversize paintings, and 1 stone sculpture).
Gift of Thomas Frank, 1993.
For a complete listing of correspondents, do the following title search in Franklin: Margaret Naumburg Papers.
- Women psychologists
- Progressive education
- Art therapy
- Women physicians
- Women in medicine
- University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
- Finding Aid Author
- Amey A. Hutchins
- Finding Aid Date
- Access Restrictions
The bulk of this collection is open for research use, however, folders containing patient/client records are restricted from use until 2044. These folders are located in: Series VI. Client records (boxes 70-91); Series XV. Photographs (boxes 155-159); and Series XVII. Oversize, Subseries E and G.
- Use Restrictions
Copyright restrictions may exist. For most library holdings, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania do not hold copyright. It is the responsibility of the requester to seek permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce material from the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.