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Edward S. Curtis collection of interpositive glass plates and papers

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Held at: University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts [Contact Us]3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6206

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Overview and metadata sections

Edward S. Curtis was born in Wisconsin, on February 19, 1868, and decided, early in his life, to work in photography. By the age of 17, he was working as an apprentice in a studio in St. Paul, Minnesota; and after his family relocated to Seattle, Washington, he founded the Curtis Studio in 1891. Curtis served as the official photographer for the Harriman Alaska Expedition, a two month expedition in 1899 to explore the waters and coastal territory of Alaska. In 1900, he visited the Piegan Blackfeet in Montana with George Bird Grinnell, an anthropologist studying Native American cultures whom he had met in 1898, and his interest in photographing Native Americans was strengthened.

By 1906, he was working towards creating a comprehensive set of volumes he hoped to call The North American Indian. He approached J.P. Morgan for funding and Morgan eventually "agreed to sponsor Curtis, paying out $75,000 over five years in exchange for 25 sets of volumes and 500 original prints." (King) With this funding, Curtis was able to purchase equipment, make travel arrangements, and hire interpreters and researchers. Gilbert King states that Curtis took photographs "with his hulking 14-in-by-17-inch view camera, which produced glass-plate negatives that yielded the crisp, detailed and gorgeous gold-tone prints he was noted for."

For thirty years, Curtis traveled through the American West documenting more than eighty tribes of Native Americans west of the Mississippi from the Mexican border to northern Alaska, taking more than 40,000 photographs. Jake Homiak, director of Smithsonian Anthropology Collections and Archives Program, describes Curtis's style as ethnographic romanticism, which is evident in his focus on "ideals and imagery designed to create a timeless vision of Native American culture," (King). As time progressed, he was increasingly dismayed by the ways in which native culture was being lost as "modern amenities and American expansion had already irrevocably altered the Indian way of life," (King). In order to achieve his goals, Curtis photographed Native Americans in traditional clothing, staged re-enactments, and manually retouched images to remove "any modern artifacts," (King).

Over the years, interest in Native American culture waned and crises like World War I and the 1929 crash of the stock market took popular focus from Curtis's work. In addition, J.P. Morgan's death resulted in a dramatic reduction of funding. According to the Edward Curtis Gallery, "upon its completion in 1930, [Curtis's] work, entitled The North American Indian, consisted of 20 volumes, each containing 75 hand-pressed photogravures and 300 pages of text. Each volume was accompanied by a corresponding portfolio containing at least 36 photogravures." His work and travel caused problems in his marriage; and in 1916, his wife, Clara, sued for divorce, and "in a bitter settlement was awarded the Curtis family home and the studio. Rather than allow his ex-wife to profit from his Native American work, Edward and his daughter Beth made copies of certain glass plate negatives, then destroyed the originals." (King). According to George Horse Capture, "less than 300 sets of The North American Indian were sold." Faced with financial and family struggles, Curtis "suffered a complete mental and physical breakdown, requiring hospitalization in Colorado" (King). Following his recovery, he lived with his daughter and her family; and he attempted to write his memoirs which were never published. He died on October 21, 1952, at the age of 84. Today, responses to Curtis's photographs are varied—some see his work as being "responsible for many of the antiquated images of Native Americans that prevail today," (Eason) while others feel that his work provided documentation of "native beauty, strength, honor, dignity and other admirable characteristics [that are] an integral part of the people." (Horse Capture). Folder titles are largely taken from Curtis's own titles of images and the language should be considered in the context of the time in which the images were created by Curtis.

Works cited:

Eason, Arianne E., Laura M. Brady, and Stephanie A. Fryberg. "Reclaiming Representations & Interrupting the Cycle of Bias Against Native Americans," Daedalus, Spring 2018, Vol. 147, No. 2, pages 70-81

Edward S. Curtis Gallery, Edward S. Curtis, accessed 2022 February 24

Horse Capture, George. Shadow Catcher, PBS. American Masters, April 23, 2001, accessed 2022 February 24

King, Gilbert. Edward Curtis' Epic Project to Photograph Native Americans, Smithsonian Magazine, 2012 March 21, accessed 2022 February 10

This collection consists of two gifts of material relating to Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian. The bulk of the material consists of 168 interpositive glass plates, nearly all of which include artistic modifications by Curtis and his associates. Access to the interpositive glass plates is currently restricted while the material is being housed. Researchers interested in seeing digitized versions of the photogravure prints should consult Northwestern University and the Library of Congress. This collection is arranged in two series: I. Stephan Loewentheil collection of Edward S. Curtis material; and William H. Miller III collection of Edward S. Curtis interpositive glass plates.

Series I. Stephan Loewentheil collection of Edward S. Curtis material includes A. Documents relating to the publication of The North American Indian and B. The North American Indian original interpositive glass plates with artistic modifications.

A. Documents relating to the publication of The North American Indian contains a small number of brochures and pamphlets regarding the Curtis Studio and Curtis's photographs of Native Americans, as well as several documents relating to the funding and publishing of The North American Indian. These documents include a prospectus for the volume (signed by Theodore Roosevelt), a letter describing the publication plan, a printed invitation to help fund the publication, a partial list of subscribers funding the publication, and press notices. In addition, there are twenty-three proof sheets of photogravures from The North American Indian, largely from the portfolios, bearing editorial markings and corrections made during the course of printing. These editorial markings and corrections include penciled notes on the image, circles around imperfections in the prints, and a variety of numbers, some indicating volume numbers. Proof sheets are arranged numerically by Plate number.

B. The North American Indian original interpositive glass plates with artistic modifications consists of seventeen 14 x 17 inch glass plates, which reveal techniques not apparent when viewing the photogravure or negative. Multiple unique alterations can be seen on these plates, likely employed by Curtis to improve the compositions and emphasize ethnographic information. The types of artistic modification seen in these plates include etching, drawing, masking out, and areas where the photosensitive emulsion has been removed. These plates are arranged numerically by Plate number.

Series II. William H. Miller III collection of Edward S. Curtis interpositive glass plates consists of 151 14 x 17 inch unique, original interpositive glass plates which, like the Loewentheil plates, are frequently artistically modified by Curtis or his team of artisans. Many of these items have modifications such as etching, drawing, masking, or removal of emulsions, however the extent of the modifications for this group of material will not be known until housing is complete. Items from this group of material are arranged by the portfolio in which they were published in Edward S. Curtis's 20-volume The North American Indian. Images from portfolios 10 to 17 and 19 to 20 are represented in this group and are arranged numerically by Plate number and in portfolios as follows:

A. Portfolio 10: Kwakiutl;

B. Portfolio 11: The Nootka and the Haida;

C. Portfolio 12: The Hopi;

D. Portfolio 13: The Hupa, the Yurok, the Karok, the Wiyot, Tolowa, and Tutuni, the Shasta, the Achomawi, and the Klamath;

E. Portfolio 14: The Kato, the Wailaki, the Yuki, the Pomo, the Wintun, the Maidu, the Miwok, and the Yokuts;

F. Portfolio 15: Southern California Shoshoneans, the Diegueños, Plateau Shoshoneans, and the Washo;

G. Portfolio 16: The Tiwa and the Keres;

H. Portfolio 17: The Tewa and the Zuñi;

I. Portfolio 19: The Indians of Oklahoma, the Wichita, the Southern Cheyenne, the Oto, the Comanche, and the Peyote Cult;

J. Portfolio 20: The Alaskan Eskimo, the Nunivak, the Eskimo of Hooper Bay, the Eskimo of King Island, the Eskimo of Little Diomede Island, the Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales, the Kotzebue Eskimo, the Noatak, the Kobuk, and the Selawik.

This collection does not contain glass plates for all the images that appeared in each of the portfolios represented. According to the Edward Curtis Gallery, each of the 20 volumes was accompanied by a corresponding portfolio containing at least 36 photogravures (which would have been printed using the interpositive glass plates). Number of plates per portfolio in this collection range from 5 to 25 plates.

The following indigenous peoples are represented in the images contained within this collection: Achomawi, Acoma, Arapaho, Assiniboin, Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cheyenne, Clayoquot, Cochiti, Comanche, Cree, Cupeño, Diegueño, Eskimo, Haida, Hano, Hesquiat, Hopi, Hupa, Jemez, Kainah, Klamath, Kwakiutl, Koskimo, Laguna, Maidu, Makah, Miwok, Northern Paiute, Nootka, Nunivak, Oto, Pomo, Quapaw, Sarsi, Serrano, Siksika, Tewa, Tolowa, Wailaki, Washo, Wichita, Yokuts, Yurok, and Zuni. The images were taken in regions including Alaska, Arizona, British Columbia, California, Great Basin, Great Plains, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pacific Northwest, Texas, and Washington State.

Photographs largely document people, mainly in the form in portraits. The majority of the photographs are of adults, but there are a number of images of children and adolescents. Curtis documented native dress, jewelry, hair styles, and costumes used in ceremonies. In addition to portraits, there are images of people at work fishing, whaling, hunting, gathering abalones, clams, fruits, roots, seaweed, and tules, washing wheat, transporting water or goods, and making pottery and baskets; people traveling on horse or in boats, especially canoes; and people practicing their spiritual life, making offerings, performing dances and ceremonies, and honoring the memories of their ancestors. There are also images of the places in which these peoples lived: adobe houses, tipis, villages, including some with totem poles, and camps.

For both series, folder titles are largely taken from Curtis's own titles of images and the language should be considered in the context of the time in which the images were created by Curtis. Curtis's The North American Indian (available online via Northwestern University Libraries Digital Collections) may be consulted for information contextualizing the history and significance of the images.

Series I, gift of Stephan Loewentheil, September 2021 and Series II, gift of William H. Miller III, July 2021.

Publisher
University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Access Restrictions

At this point, a small portion of the collection is open to access (boxes 1 and 2). All interpositive glass plates are restricted from use until housing of these fragile items is complete.

Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may exist. For most library holdings, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania do not hold copyright. It is the responsibility of the requester to seek permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce material from the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Collection Inventory

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"Curtis' 'Indian Picture Opera,'" brochure announcing the first West Coast production of Curtis's theatrical production combining projected images of his Native American photographs and orchestral music, Metropolitan Theater, Seattle, 1912 December 6.
Box 1 Folder 1
"Curtis Indians," promotional brochure advertising The North American Indian, circa 1915.
Box 1 Folder 1
"Edward S. Curtis Studio," promotional brochure advertising The North American Indian and featuring the photograph, 'The Vanishing Race', circa 1920s.
Box 1 Folder 1
"Curtis Indian Pictures," promotional flyer advertising the photographs and the "permanent exhibition" maintained in Curtis' studio in Seattle, undated.
Box 1 Folder 1
The North American Indian, prospectus, signed by Theodore Roosevelt, circa 1908.
Box 1 Folder 2
The North American Indian, press notices, 1908.
Box 1 Folder 3
The North American Indian, publication correspondence, letter from Curtis to Mr. Frank Heald regarding possibility of Heald publishing and promising to send prospectus, 1907 December 12.
Box 1 Folder 4
The North American Indian, publication correspondence, letter from Frank Donahue, secretary to Curtis, to Mr. Frank Heald, sending prospectus, 1908 January 25.
Box 1 Folder 4
The North American Indian, printed invitation to subscribe as an "honorary regent" to underwrite the cost to present volumes to "fifty of the leading universities, libraries and scientific institutions of Europe and America", circa 1907.
Box 1 Folder 4
The North American Indian, partial list of subscribers and owners (71 subscribers), circa 1907.
Box 1 Folder 4
Curtis, Edward S., self portrait, photogravure on Van Gelder Zonen paper, 1899.
Box 2 Folder 1
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 445, "Wife of Modoc Henry-Klamath", circa 1923.
Box 2 Folder 2
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 451, "Hupa Woman", circa 1923.
Box 2 Folder 3
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 455, "Tolowa Dancing Head-Dress", circa 1923.
Box 2 Folder 4
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 459, "Fish-Weir Across Trinity River--Hupa", circa 1923.
Box 2 Folder 5
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 466, "Achomawi Man", circa 1923.
Box 2 Folder 6
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 514, "Modern House at Tejon," includes handwritten note "unfinished" and "4153", circa 1924.
Box 2 Folder 7
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 518, "Palm Cañon," includes handwritten note "unfinished," "4157," and "volume XV", circa 1924.
Box 2 Folder 8
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 528, "Southern Diegueño House," includes handwritten "4150" and "Vol XV", circa 1924.
Box 2 Folder 9
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 658, "The Story of the Washita," includes handwritten note "unfinished", circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 10
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 660, "Cheyenne Sun-Dance Lodge," includes handwritten note "unfinished," a note about mistake with hyphen, and a note that the correction was made, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 11
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 661, "Hótamítá"yē Society, Cheyenne Sun Dance," includes handwritten note "unfinished", circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 12
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 664, "A Cheyenne Chief," includes handwritten note "unfinished," "97-XIX," and x's marking three imperfections on the print, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 13
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 665, "The Lone Chief -- Cheyenne," includes handwritten note "unfinished" and "107-XIX", circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 14
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 666, "Cheyenne Costume," includes handwritten note "unfinished" and "104-XIX", circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 15
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 671, "Black Belly -- Cheyenne," includes handwritten note "unfinished," "103-XIX," and numerous x's indicating imperfections in the print, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 16
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 673, "The Old Warrior -- Arapaho," includes handwritten note "unfinished" and "80-XIX", circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 17
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 676, "Lone Chief -- Oto," includes handwritten note "unfinished," "100-XIX," and numerous x's indicating imperfections in the print, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 18
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 677, "Wakónda - Oto," includes handwritten note "unfinished" and "106-XIX", circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 19
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 681, "John Quapaw (Húnta Wakúnta)," includes handwritten note "unfinished," "105-XIX," and an x in a circle at the bottom left of engraving, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 20
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 684, "Úwat - Comanche," includes handwritten note "unfinished," and a note correcting diacritic in title, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 21
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure of Plate 686, "A Comanche," includes handwritten note "unfinished" and a red x in bottom right corner, circa 1927.
Box 2 Folder 22
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure (no plate number), "Washo House," includes handwritten note "unfinished," "4065," and "XV", circa 1924.
Box 2 Folder 23
The North American Indian, proof sheet of photogravure (no plate number), "Dip-Netting at the Sugar Bowl -- Hupa," includes a handwritten x in bottom right corner, circa 1923.
Box 2 Folder 23
"Chaíwa," young Tewa girl with ceremonial hairstyling, in close-up portrait (includes a line traced in unknown media around the depicted figure) [Plate 414], 1921.
"Tewa Girls," two Tewa girls holding a rug, posed on the front stairs of a pueblo building (includes "Copyright 1900 – 68-1" etched into the lower left corner of the plate and a line traced in unknown media parallel to the edge of the architecture) [Plate 434] , 1921.
"Jemez Architecture," Jemez buildings [Plate 551], 1925.
"From the Threshing Floor," a young girl standing in an open field, balancing a basket on her head (includes "X1777- 05" etched into the lower left corner of the plate, multiple artistic modifications in the upper half of the plate: the emulsion above the horizon line, and around the figure, has been removed, a line traced in unknown media parallel to, and above, the horizon line and subject, and the top half of the plate has been masked out in a dome shape with orange paper) [Plate 593], 1926.
"Titihu – Kghitluhl [also Titishû-Ghitliūbl] (Deer Running)," close-up portrait of a man, possibly "Old Sarsi" (includes artistic enhancement in the upper half of the plate and etchings of corneas) [Plate 617], 1926.
"A Cree," close-up portrait of a man (includes multiple modifications in the plate: the emulsion surrounding the figure has been removed and the area around the figure has been masked out with orange paper) [Plate 626], 1926.
"A Cree Camp at Lac Les Isles," a camp including three figures and a tipi, in a clearing (includes multiple modifications in the upper half of the plate: the emulsion above the depicted tree line, around the taller trees and tipi, has been removed and small sections of the emulsion bordering the trees is still visible and appears darker than the areas where the emulsion is removed; and a line traced in unknown media parallel to, above and around, the depicted tree line, taller trees, and tipi) [Plate 628], 1926.
"Chief Hector – Assiniboin," ornately dressed chief on horseback on an open plain (includes modification in the upper half of the plate with emulsions above the depicted horizon line, and around the figure, removed) [Plate 629], 1926.
"A Painted Tipi – Assiniboin," a child on horseback, an adult standing figure, and a tipi on an open plain (includes multiple modifications in the upper half of the plate: the emulsion above the depicted horizon line around the tipi, standing figure, and horseback child, has been removed, a line traced in unknown media parallel to, and above, the horizon line and subjects, and the top half of the plate has been masked out in a dome shape with orange paper) [Plate 633], 1926.
"A Blackfoot Travois," two figures, a horse and travois, and a dog in a field (includes damage to bottom right portion of plate and manipulation in the upper half of the plate where the emulsion above the depicted horizon line – around the figures, horse and travois, and dog – has been removed) [Plate 637], 1926.
"Blackfoot Tipis," a standing figure, horse, and two tipis on an open plain (includes multiple modifications in the upper half of the plate: the emulsion above the depicted horizon line, around the tipis, has been removed and the composition around the tipis, in the top half of the plate, has been masked out with orange paper) [Plate 642], 1926.
"Lodge of the Horn Society – Blood," a tipi and sacred bags on an open plain (includes multiple modifications in the upper 2/3 of the plate: the emulsion above the horizon line around the tipi and sacred bags has been removed and the top portion of the composition around the tipi and sacred bags has been masked out with orange paper) [Plate 647], 1926.
"Sacred Bags of the Horn Society," part of a tipi and three sacred bags in an open plain (includes multiple manipulations in the upper half of the plate: the emulsion above the horizon line, around the tipi and bags, has been removed, a line traced in unknown media parallel to, and above, the horizon line, tipi, and bags, and the composition above the line has been masked out with orange paper) [Plate 646], 1926.
"As it was in the Old Days," a herd of bison on an open plain (includes manipulation in the top quarter of the composition: the emulsion above the depicted horizon line has been removed and the composition above the depicted horizon line has been masked out with orange paper) [Plate 652], 1927.
"Grass – House Ceremony," a group of dancers with spectators viewing from a grass house beneath trees (includes manipulation in the top quarter of the composition: the emulsion above the depicted tree line has been removed and the composition above the depicted tree line has been masked out with orange paper) [Plate 655], 1927.
"A Cheyenne Chief," a chief standing in a clearing with trees in the distance and holding several eagle feathers which were used for ornamentation among older Cheyenne men and in the making of war bonnets (includes multiple modifications in the upper quarter of the plate: the emulsion above the depicted tree line has been removed and the top quarter of the plate has been masked out in a dome shape with orange paper) [Plate 664], 1927.
"Nunivak Children," six young Nunivak children sitting in grass (includes manipulation in the upper half of the plate: the emulsion above the depicted horizon line, around the tops of the seated figures, has been removed) [Plate 688], 1928.

"A Nakoaktok Chief's Daughter," George Hunt's wife on a platform wearing a cedar-bark cape, an elaborately decorated chief's hat, and abalone shell earrings at a potlatch ceremony (during which the community gave away property to the needy) [Plate 334], 1914.
"Síwīt - Awaitlala," portrait of "Síwīt, chief of the Kyekykyenok gens of the Awaitlala," a Kwakiutl tribe [Plate 335], 1914.
"Chief's Party – Qagyuhl," Kwakiutl in canoes on the Clayoquot Sound in British Columbia [Plate 338], 1914.
"On the Beach – Nakoaktok," clam-digger wearing indigenous dress [Plate 339], 1914.
"In Kwakiutl Waters," fleet of Kwakiutl canoes, manned by crews in indigenous dress [Plate 340], 1914.
"A Koskimo House-Post," interior supporting column with carving of Komokwa (the Kwakiutl ruler of the sea, and an indicator of great wealth and fortune) [Plate 341], 1914.
"Gathering Abalones," Tsukwani, George Hunt's wife [Plate 342], 1914.
"The Wedding Party – Qagyuhl," Kwakwa ka 'wakw wedding party in two canoes at shoreline; bride and groom stand on "bride's seat" in the stern while a relative of the bride dances on a platform in the bow [Plate 344], 1914.
"Yakotlus – Qatsino (Profile)," probably Qatsino Chief Cas-e-lus [Plate 346], 1914.
"Yakotlus – Qatsino," probably Qatsino Chief Cas-e-lus [Plate 347], 1914.
"Group of Winter Dancers – Qagyuhl," a re-creation of a Hamatsa ritual dance for the film "In the Land of the Head-Hunters" [Plate 348], 1914.
"Nimkish Village at Alert Bay," Kwakiutl village, with totem poles, Alert Bay, British Columbia [Plate 350], 1914.
"Masked Dancers in Canoes – Qagyuhl, A," winter ceremony with Kwakiutl dancers in masks and costumes representing Wasp, Thunderbird (master of winter dance ceremonies), and Grizzly-bear arriving in canoes [Plate 351], 1914.
"Koskimo Woman," possibly "Lady Wacas," wife of Chief Wacas of the Koskimo [Plate 354], 1914.
"Dancing to Restore an Eclipsed Moon," group of Kwakiutl people dancing in a circle around a smoking fire [Plate 355], 1914.
"Masked Dancers in Canoes – Qagyuhl, B," winter ceremony with Kwakiutl dancers in masks and costumes representing Wasp, Thunderbird (master of winter dance ceremonies), and Grizzly-bear arriving in canoes [Plate 362], 1914.
"Hesquiat Root Digger" [Plate 367], 1915.
"The Seaweed Gatherer" [Plate 369], 1915.
"Whale Ceremonial" [Plate 370], 1915.
"Clayoquot Girl" [Plate 372], 1915.
"Canoeing on Clayoquot Sound" [Plate 373], 1915.
"Ceremonial Bathing," female shaman of the Clayoquot tribe [Plate 376], 1915.
"A Hesquiat Maiden," girl wearing the cedar-bark ornaments that are tied to the hair of virgins on the fifth morning of their puberty ceremony [Plate 379], 1915.
"Nootka Woman Wearing Cedar-Bark Blanket" [Plate 381], 1915.
"The Whaler" [Plate 382], 1915.
"A Makah Maiden" [Plate 385], 1915.
"Waiting for the Canoe," two women with clam-baskets and digging sticks [Plate 387], 1915.
"On the West Coast of Vancouver Island," two women in a canoe wearing wreaths of foliage [Plate 391], 1915.
"Fish Spearing – Clayoquot" [Plate 392], 1915.
"Return of Halibut Fishers," the men of the tribe returning from a fishing trip [Plate 393], 1915.
"The Whaler – Makah," staged portrait of Wilson Parker wearing a wig and bear-skin cape over blue jeans (whaling had become illegal prior to Curtis's arrival) [Plate 395], 1915.
"Captured Whale," two women and a partially butchered humpback whale on the beach of Neah Bay [Plate 396], 1915.
"A Haida Chief's Tomb at Yan" [Plate 397], 1915.
"Loitering at the Spring," group of Walpi and Hano girls in holiday attire [Plate 400], 1921.
"Buffalo Dance at Hano" [Plate 401], 1921.
"A Tewa Girl" [Plate 402], 1921.
"Antelopes and Snakes at Oraibi," the Antelope fraternity and the Snake fraternity singing prior to handling the reptiles in the Snake dance with the kisi, a cottonwood booth, and the custodian of the snake-jars [Plate 404], 1921.
"A Hopi Girl," young woman with elaborate hairstyle indicating that she is ready for marriage [Plate 406], 1905.
"Walpi," a community-house added to as need arose [Plate 410], 1907.
"Hopi Maiden" [Plate 412], 1905.
"Counting the Record," man inspecting a series of marks cut into the rock at Middle mesa recording the losses inflicted on enemies in a former generation [Plate 413], 1921.
"Chaiwa – Tewa, Profile," portrait of a young woman [Plate 415], 1921.
"The Potter Mixing Clay," woman sitting on floor mixing clay [Plate 419], 1921.
"Hopi Architecture," tall and many-roomed houses [Plate 421], 1921.
"Snake Dancers Entering the Plaza," a rain dance in which dancers sent prayers with their "brother" snakes to the underworld, where the rainmakers resided [Plate 422], 1921.
"Primitive Style of Hair Dressing," imitating the squash-blossom and indicating virginity [Plate 423], 1921.
"A Walpi Man," portrait [Plate 424], 1921.
"Mishongnovi," comprehensive view of a Middle Mesa pueblo [Plate 425], 1900.
"Potter," portrait of Iris Nampeyo, one of a long line of celebrated potters [Plate 426], 1906.
"East Mesa Girls," group portrait [Plate 427], 1907.
"Modified Style of Hair Dressing," portrait of young woman, whose hair would have been wound around a curved piece of wood that was removed when styling was complete [Plate 428], 1921.
"Depositing a Prayer-Stick," man asking for rain by placing a prayer stick in water [Plate 433], 1921.
"Water Carriers," two people transporting water from deep wells stemming from the nearby Navajo Aquifer to the high Hopi pueblos [Plate 435], 1921.
"Sam Ewing – Yurok," portrait [Plate 437], 1923.
"Quiet Waters – Yurok," the shores of Klamath river [Plate 444], 1923.
"Wife of Modoc Henry – Klamath," portrait [Plate 445], 1923.
"A Klamath Type," portrait of man wearing dentalium and fur headdress [Plate 446], 1923.
"Hupa Mother and Child," portrait [Plate 450], 1923.
"Hupa Woman," portrait of woman wearing traditional necklaces and a button-down blouse [Plate 451], 1923.
"The Salmon Stream," portrait of Hupa youth fishing with spear [Plate 452], 1923.
"Hupa Fisherman," portrait of man fishing with a double-pointed spear [Plate 453], 1923.
"Spearing Salmon," portrait of a man fishing with a spear [Plate 454], 1923.
"Yurok Drummer," portrait of man with drum [Plate 457], 1923.
"The Klamath Hunter," fisherman in canoe [Plate 458], 1923.
"Fish-Weir Across Trinity River – Hupa" [Plate 459], 1923.
"Woman's Primitive Dress – Tolowa," portrait [Plate 461], 1923.
"Wokas Season – Klamath," water lilies which produce bitter wokas seeds on Klamath Lake [Print 462], 1923.
"Achomawi Basket-Maker," portrait of a basket maker using the process known as twining [Plate 464], 1923.
"Achomawi Man," portrait [Plate 466], 1923.
"Smelt Fisher – Trinidad Yurok," man fishing [Plate 469], 1923.
"A Smoky Day at the Sugar Bowl – Hupa," Hupa salmon fisherman at Sugar Bowl rapids of Trinity river, near the upper end of Hoopa valley [Plate 471], 1923.
"Mitat-Wailaki," portrait of a man [Plate 472], 1924.
"Old 'Ukiah' – Pomo," portrait of a man [Plate 473], 1924.
"Hunter – Lake Pomo," hunter in a canoe [Plate 474], 1924.
"Mixed-Blood Coast Pomo," portrait [Plate 476], 1924.
"Gathering Tules – Lake Pomo," portrait of woman gathering round-stem tule, Scirpus lacustris [Plate 481], 1924.
"Pomo Seed-Gathering Utensils," including burden baskets, winnowing trays, and a seed-beater [Plate 484], 1924.
"Fishing Camp – Lake Pomo," including a tule house [Plate 487], 1924.
"Otila – Maidu," portrait of Jack Franco [Plate 492], 1924.
"Fishing Pool – Southern Miwok" [Plate 494], 1924.
"A Southern Miwok," portrait of a man with Western haircut and dress [Plate 495], 1924.
"Fisherman – Southern Miwok" [Plate 496], 1924.
"Chukchansi Yokuts," portrait of a man [Plate 497], 1924.
"A Chukchansi Matron," portrait of a woman in tartan blouse [Plate 505], 1924.
"Quiet Waters – Tule River Reservation," Mariposa man, standing on a rock in a pool of water surrounded by boulders with mountains in background [Plate 506], 1924.
"Yaundanchi Yokuts Woman," portrait [Plate 507], 1924.
"A Cupeño Woman," portrait [Plate 510], 1924.
"Serrano Woman of Tejon," portrait [Plate 512], 1924.
"Chemehuevi House" [Plate 515], 1924.
"Home in the Mesquite – Chemehuevi" [Plate 516], 1924.
"Under the Palms – Cahuilla," immediate environment of the village at Palm Springs on Agua Caliente reservation [Plate 521], 1924.
"Andres Cañon" [Plate 523], 1924.
"Diegueño of Santa Ysabel," portrait of a man [Plate 532], 1924.
"Aged Paviotso of Pyramid Lake," portrait [Plate 537], 1924.
"Fishing with a Gaff-Hook – Paviotso" [Plate 538], 1924.
"Walker Lake Paviotso," portrait [Plate 539], 1924.
"Datsolali, Washo Basket-Maker," portrait of Tabuta (nicknamed Datsolali) one year before her death [Plate 540], 1924.
"Ti'Mu – Cochiti," portrait of a woman who married a Sia man [Plate 555], 1925.
"Acoma from the South," with views of the church [San Esteban Del Rey Mission Church, built by Acoma tribes under order of Spanish missionaries in 1629], the walls of the cemetery, and the outline of Mount Taylor [Plate 566], 1904.
"Old Trail at Acoma," probably the trail built under the supervision of Fray Juan Ramirez (circa 1629) [Plate 567], 1904.
"Acoma Roadway" [Plate 570], 1904.
"Acoma Water Girls," group of women carrying pots of water on their heads [Plate 573], 1904.
"Laguna Architecture" [Plate 575], 1925.
"Paguate Entrance," with woman on stairs [Plate 578], 1925.
"Sentinel – San Ildefonso," watchman in a niche of a cliff [Plate 580], 1925.
"On the Rio Grande – San Ildefonso," two women in indigenous dress at the water's edge [Plate 583], 1905.
"Fruit Gatherer – San Ildefonso," portrait of a woman picking peaches [Plate 585], 1905.
"Girl and Jar – San Ildefonso," portrait of a woman balancing a jar on her head [Plate 590], 1905.
"In the Gray Morning – San Ildefonso," woman filling a jar with a gourd ladle at shallow pool [Plate 591], 1905.
"Offering to the Sun – San Ildefonso" [Plate 592], 1925.
"Washing Wheat – San Juan," dipping baskets of wheat into an acequia, or irrigation ditch, to dissolve dirt and to float away debris from the wheat kernels [Plate 594], 1905.
"Ambrosio Martinez – San Juan," portrait [Plate 596], 1905.
"San Juan Pottery" [Plate 597], 1905.
"Gossiping – San Juan," three women at water's edge [Plate 598], 1905.
"Offering at the Waterfall – Nambe," man placing prayer plume at waterfall [Plate 599], 1925.
"Tesuque Buffalo Dancers," two male dancers in costume [Plate 600], 1925.
"Oyi ('Duck White'), Summer Cacique of Santa Clara," portrait [Plate 601], 1905.
"Potter – Santa Clara," portrait of a woman potter polishing a vessel [Plate 602], 1905.
"Pottery Burners at Santa Clara," two women tending a fire pit [Plate 603], 1905.
"Inscription Rock," view of the monument, also called 'El Morro' (The Castle), which contains over 2,000 different inscriptions by indigenous peoples, Spanish explorers, and American travelers [Plate 604], 1925.
"Zuñi Street Scene" [Plate 605], 1925.
"Grinding Medicine – Zuñi," man lying on blanket grinding medicine in small stone mortar [Plate 606], 1925.
"Load of Fuel – Zuñi," man with burro transporting firewood [Plate 608], 1903.
"Terraced Houses of Zuñi" [Plate 609], 1903.
"Lutakawi, Zuñi Governor," portrait [Plate 611], 1925.
"Waihusiwa, a Zuñi Kyaqimassi," portrait (a Kyaqimassi is a 'house chief,' the most important of all Zuñi priests) [Plate 612], 1903.
"Zuñi Woman," portrait of a woman with bowl balanced on her head, possibly as part of a ceremony [Plate 614], 1903.
"Corner of Zuñi" [Plate 615], 1903.
"Wichita Grass-House" [Plate 654], 1927.
"Cheyenne Sun-Dance Lodge," with tourists [Plate 660], 1927.
"Hótamítá"yē Society, Cheyenne Sun Dance," members of band returning from the forest on horseback, decorated with willow branches [Plate 661], 1927.
"Reuben Taylor (Istofhuts) – Cheyenne," portrait [Plate 670], 1927.
"A Comanche Mother," portrait of a woman with her baby swaddled in tightly-wrapped buckskin or leather rucksack [Plate 685], 1927.
"Kenowun – Nunivak," portrait of a woman [Plate 691], 1928.
"Ugiyaku – Nunivak," portrait of a woman [Plate 693], 1928.
"Hooper Bay Youth," portrait [Plate 698], 1928.
"King Island Village," which consisted of twenty-nine houses built irregularly on seven terraces [Plate 701], 1928.
"King Island Homes," small huts built on stilts [Plate 702], 1928.
"Qunaninru – King Island," portrait of a man [Plate 703], 1928.
"Launching the Whaleboat – Cape Prince of Wales" [Plate 707], 1928.
"Cape Prince of Wales Man," portrait [Plate 708], 1928.
"Whaling Crew – Cape Prince of Wales," boat containing whaling crew [Plate 709], 1928.
"A Foggy Day – Kotzebue," boat with sail [Plate 711], 1928.
"Starting Up at the Noatak River – Kotzebue," boat with sail [Plate 712], 1928.
"Muskrat-Hunter – Kotzebue," hunter with fur-lined hood in canoe [Plate 714], 1928.
"Arriving Home – Noatak," boat with sail [Plate 715], 1928.
"Ola – Noatak," portrait of wife of Paul Ivanoff, Curtis's main translator and guide in Alaska [Plate 716], 1928.
"Noatak Kaiaks" [Plate 718], 1928.
"Nungoktok – Noatak," man in kayak [Plate 719], 1928.
"Charlie Wood – Kobuk," portrait (possibly the subject is a medicine man) [Plate 721], 1928.
"Kobuk Costume," portrait of a man [Plate 722], 1928.

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