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Anti-Imperialist League Collected Records

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Held at: Swarthmore College Peace Collection [Contact Us]500 College Avenue, Swarthmore 19081-1399

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Overview and metadata sections

The Anti-Imperialist League was formed circa June 1898 to oppose the war of the United States with Spain over Cuba's fight for independence from Spanish rule. The United States also wished to expand its influence in the Carribean and across the Pacfic and so annexed the Philippine Islands and Puerto Rico. The AIL included among its members such persons as Jane Addams, Fanny Baker Ames, Edward Atkinson, Mary Emma Byrd, Andrew Carnegie, Mary Fells, Maria Freeman Gray, William James, David Starr Jordan, Josephine Shaw Lowell, Lucia Ames Mead, Emily L. Osgood, Mary G. Pickering, Alice Thacher Post, Mary Schieffelin, Emma J. Smith, Mark Twain, Fanny Garrison Villard, and Erving Winslow. Eventually, the League grew into a bipartisan mass movement of some 30,000 members. It reached into 30 states, with various branches springing up. The League moved its main office from Boston to Chicago and then back to Boston (when the New England Anti-Imperialist League changed its name to the Anti-Imperialist League).

A peace treaty passed in the U.S. Senate on February 6, 1899 allowed for the independence of Cuba, and for the U.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Two days later, Filipinos led by Emilio Aquinaldo, were fighting Americans. In protesting the treaty, the 1899 Platform of the League stated: "We hold that the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism, an evil from which it has been our glory to be free. We regret that it has become necessary in the land of Washington and Lincoln to reaffirm that all men, of whatever race or color, are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. We insist that the subjugation of any people is 'criminal aggression' and open disloyalty to the distinctive principles of our Government. We earnestly condemn the policy of the present National Administration in the Philippines. . . . We denounce the slaughter of the Filipinos as a needless horror. We protest against the extension of American sovereignty by Spanish methods." Andrew Carnegie offered to buy the Philippines from the United States to give the islands their independence. Instead, American troops killed between 250,000 and 600,000 Filipinos, probably most of them civilians, and captured Aguinaldo in February 1902, at which time President Roosevelt pronounced that the war was over.

The Anti-Imperialist League continued to challenge American intervention abroad until 1920, but it was largely isolated from the peace movement and had lost most of its impact.

The Swarthmore College Peace Collection is not the official repository for the records of this organization.

Acquisitions information is uknown.

Processed by Anne M. Yoder, Archivist, September 2001.

Items removed include a Poster (Broadside by Edward Atkinson "Cost of War and Warfare," 1904).

Publisher
Swarthmore College Peace Collection
Finding Aid Author
Anne Yoder
Finding Aid Date
2010
Access Restrictions

The collection is open for research use.

Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendents, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Use Restrictions

None.

Collection Inventory

Checklist / history.
Box 1
"Letter from The Hon. George F. Hoar", March 29, 1899.
Box 1
"A Straightforward Tale" by Clay MacCauley, 1899.
Box 1
"The Economic Situation in the Philippines" by Prof. H. Parker Willis, 1905.
Box 1
"The Cost of War" by Prof. Charles J. Bullock, 1904.
Box 1
"Philippine Independence; Why?" by Hon. James H. Blount, 1907.
Box 1
"The Calamities of Balayan, P.I.: Reply to a Criticism of a Petition Made to the Taft Expedition of 1905, by the Petitioners Felix Unzon, Vicente Paz Rillo, Vivencio Ramos, Vicente Almanzor", 1907.
Box 1
"Report of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League and Its Adjournment", November 27 and 30, 1909.
Box 1
"Neutralization: America's Opportunity" by Erving Winslow, Secretary of the Anti-Imperialist League, 4518.
Box 1
Scope and Contents

printed in the "Congressional Record"

"Report of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League", 6561.
Box 1
"Report of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League", 6988.
Box 1
"Address by the Hon. W. Bourke Cockran Delivered in Faneuil Hall, Boston", Feburary 23, 1900.
Box 1
"Brief of Statement to Be Made by Edward Atkinson Before the Committee on the Philippines", 1902.
Box 1
"Report of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the New England Anti-Imperialist League and Its Adjournment", November 28 and 30, 1903.
Box 1
"An Epitome of Historical Events and of Official and Other Correspondence Connected with the.
Box 1
Acquisition and Other Dealings with the Philippine Islands" prepared by Erving Winslow, Secretary of New England Anti-Imperialistic League, 1902.
Box 1
"Anti-Imperialism: The Great Issue: Addresses by The Hon. Charles R. Codman and Mr. Henry W. Hardon; Reply by The Hon. Alton B. Parker", 1750.
Box 1
"The Philippine Policy of Secretary Taft Analyzed by Moorefield Storey", 1904?.
Box 1
"The Cost of War and Warfare from 1898 to 1905, Inclusive Twelve Hundred Million Dollars" by Edward Atkinson, 1904.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #4: "The Policy of Imperialism: Address by Hon. Carl Schurz at the Anti-Imperialist Conference in Chicago", October 17, 1899.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #5: "Mr McKinley's Declaration of War" by Albert H. Tolman, 1.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #7: "The President's Policy: War and Conquest Abroad, Degradation of Labor at Home: Address by Hon. George S. Boutwell, President, American Anti-Imperialist League, at Masonic Hall, Washington, D.C.", 11.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #8: "Is It Right? An Address by Moorefield Storey at the Philadelphia Conference", 54.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #9: "Republic or Empire with Glimpses of 'Criminal Aggression': An Address Delivered by Edwin Burritt Smith to the Philadelphia Conference", 54.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #14: "Will the United States Withdraw from the Philippines" by John Foreman / "The 'Single Tribe' Fiction" by Edward C. Pierce, 1900.
Box 1
"The Menace to America" by Joseph Henry Crooker, 1900.
Box 1
"The Constitution and Inequality of Rights" by Edwin Burritt Smith, 1901.
Box 1
Liberty Leaflet #4: "Americanism vs. Imperialism", 1899?.
Box 1
Leaflet "A Soldier's Solution: The Striking Letter of Missourian Who Has Served in the Philippines, and Who Urges that We Should Let the Natives Govern the Islands".
Box 1
Leaflet "Extract from Speech of Hon. Seth W. Brown", February 29, 1901.
Box 1
"An Open Letter to Bishop Potter, of New York, by the American League of Philadelphia", 275.
Box 1
"Letter from The Hon. George F. Hoar", March 29, 1899.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #1: The Chicago Liberty Meeting Held at Central Music Hall" published by Central Anti-Imperialist League, Chicago, April 30, 1899.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #2: "Patriotism and Imperialism" by J. Laurence Laughlin, published by Central Anti-Imperialist League, Chicago, 1899.
Box 1
[Resolution of] The Conference of Anti-Imperialists. [Report of a] Meeting held in Tremont Temple, Boston, 1899 (April 4), May 16, 1899.
Box 1
"Soldiers' Letters: Being Materials for the History of a War of Criminal Agression".
Box 1
"Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League, Now The New England Anti-Imperialist League, at Wesleyan Hall, Boston" published by the N.E. Anti-Imperialist League, Saturday, November 25, 1899, at 3 P.M.
Box 1
"American Imperialism: An Address by Prof. George D. Herron, April 12, 1899", "The Social Forum" vol. 1:1, June 1, 1899.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #3: "A Literary Catechism" by Frederick W. Gookin, November 1899.
Box 1
"An Arraignment of President McKinley's Policy of Extending by Force the Sovereignty of the United States over the Filipinos", 1899?.
Box 1
"I. The Cost of a National Crime. II. The Hell of War and Its Penalties: Two Treatises Suggested by the Appointment of a Day of National Thanksgiving by the President of the United States" by Edward Atkinson, 1900?.
Box 1
"III. Criminal Agresion: By Whom Committed? An Inquiry" by Edward Atkinson, February 22, 1899.
Box 1
"The Anti-Imperialist" vol. 1:2, June 3, 1899.
Box 1
"Memorial to the Senate of the United States", 1899.
Box 1
"The Anti-Imperialist" vol. 1:5, November 15, 1899.
Box 1
"Anti-Imperialist No. 5: Special Edition for Circulation in the First District of Ohio and in Other Districts Now Misrepresented", 1899.
Box 1
"Anti-imperialistischer Bund", May 1899.
Box 1
"The Commercial Aspect of Criminal Aggression", 1899.
Box 1
"A Protest Against the President's War of 'Criminal Aggression'" by James W. Stillman, 1899.
Box 1
Liberty Tract #4: "The Policy of Imperialism: Address by Hon. Carl Schurz at the Anti-Imperialist Conference in Chicago", October 17, 1899.
Box 1
Special Anti-Imperialist Supplement to The Evening Post, October 18, 1899.
Box 1
"What Shall We Do With Our Dependencies? The Annual Address Before the Bar Association of South Carolina" by Moorfield Storey, 1903.
Box 1
"Philippine Tariff -- Imperial Policy: Speech of Hon. John F. Shafroth, of Colorado, in the House of Representatives", 717.
Box 1
"Speech of Hon. George F. Hoar, of Massachusetts, in the Senate of the United States", 108.
Box 1
"Debate in the Senate of the United States on the Philippine Treason Law", 768.
Box 1
"General Hughes and Mr. Nelson: Philippine Army Defended -- General Hughes Replies to the Anti-Imperialists", 1902.
Box 1
"Courts-Martial in the Philippines: Speech of Hon. E.W. Carmack, of Tennessee, in the Senate of the United States", February 29, 1903.
Box 1
"Address of Jacob Gould Shurman . . . on Present Duties in the Philippines . . .", 1125.
Box 1
"Address by Dr. Felix Adler on "Coolie Labor in the Philippines", 1125.
Box 1
Notes.
Box 1
Miscellaneous newsclippings, 1905-1908.
Box 1

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