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Louis Fischer Papers

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Held at: Princeton University Library: Public Policy Papers [Contact Us]

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Princeton University Library: Public Policy Papers. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

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Fischer

Biography of Louis Fischer

Louis Fischer was born on February 29, 1896 in Philadelphia, son of David, a fish and fruit peddler, and Shifrah (nee Kantzapolsky). He attended the Philadelphia School of Pedagogy (affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania) from 1914 to 1916, then taught public school. From 1917 to 1920 he served as a volunteer in the Jewish Legion, a military unit recruited by the British army and spent 15 months in Palestine (1919-1920). After this military service, he worked for a brief period for a news agency in New York where he met the Russian-born Bertha "Markoosha" Mark (1890?-1977). Markoosha had been in New York since late 1916, first as a pianist touring with a group of Russian musicians; then holding various secretarial and translator jobs, sometimes working for Soviet government officials.

In 1921 Markoosha went to Berlin, Germany, to work for a former Soviet employer. Louis joined her a few months later. Aiming to get journalistic experience, he started contributing to the New York Evening Post as a European correspondent. In early 1922 he moved to Moscow. Markoosha, who had been working as an interpreter to Soviet delegations at conferences in Genoa and the Hague, joined him in September. In November, they married. Shortly thereafter, Markoosha returned to Berlin, while Louis stayed in Moscow. Their son George was born in May 1923, followed by Victor one year later. Markoosha stayed in Berlin with the boys until 1927, when she started working for the new Jewish farm colonies in the Ukraine. It was not until 1928, after Markoosha and the boys moved to Moscow, that the Fischers lived under one roof, though Louis often traveled thereafter.

Louis had been working for The Nation as special European correspondent since 1923, and contributing articles to foreign papers, often selling the same article more than once. To supplement his earnings, Fischer traveled to the United States every year to give lectures on the Soviet Union. While living in Moscow, he sympathized strongly with the Soviet regime. In 1926 his first book, Oil Imperialism: The International Struggle for Petroleum, was published; it described the international struggle for Russian petroleum concessions. The two-volume study The Soviets in World Affairs (1930) followed and became a standard reference in its day. Between 1931 and 1935, he published three more books on the Soviet Union. In 1936, the year of Stalin's first purge trial, Fischer went to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War, where he was an active supporter of the Republican anti-fascist regime, and briefly joined the International Brigades.

In 1938 Fischer decided not to return to the Soviet Union. However, Markoosha and the boys, still living in Moscow as Soviet citizens, were denied permission to leave the country until Eleanor Roosevelt personally intervened. Reunited in the United States in spring 1939, the family first settled in New York—although Louis chose to live by himself in a hotel. Very soon it was obvious that their marriage was over, but until the late 1950s Louis and Markoosha stayed in close touch, visited and wrote each other, often met with the children together, and commented on each other's manuscripts. They never divorced.

Louis encouraged Markoosha to write, and her autobiography, My Lives in Russia, appeared in 1944. In it, she tried to explain the life of the Russian people and the early appeal of Communism to her. She wrote articles and reviews, two novels (1948 and 1956), and in 1962 Reunion in Moscow, a Russian Revisits Her Country. In 1948-1949 she returned to Germany, working in displaced persons camps for the International Rescue and Relief Committee (IRRC). In 1949, because of ill health, she declined to work as a translator at the Nuremberg trials. However, she worked again for the IRRC in 1950-1951.

In 1941 Louis's Men and Politics: An Autobiography appeared, an account of the developments in Europe between the two World Wars, and his personal encounters with politicians, correspondents, and political activists. During the Second World War, Fischer continued to report on European politics, but he also became interested in the cause of Indian independence. A guest of Mohandas Gandhi in 1942, he soon authored A Week with Gandhi (1942). He traveled to India several more times and his biography The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1950) was the basis of the film Gandhi (1982).

Fischer's other major field of interest remained the Soviet Union and its foreign policy. His first new book after his family moved to the United States appeared in 1940 and dealt with the Nazi-Bolshevik Pact of 1939. In Communist and some left wing circles he was criticized for disloyalty to the Soviet Union. In June 1945 he broke publicly with The Nation, with which he had been associated for 22 years, accusing them of a 'misleading' representation of current events, and employing double standards, especially concerning the Soviet Union. He began writing for small anti-Communist liberal magazines such as The Progressive, as a foreign correspondent and commentator on international politics, focusing on Europe and Asia, especially Communism in the Soviet Union and China; imperialism; and the problems of emerging nations. He was one of two American contributors to The God That Failed (1949), an autobiographical collection of essays written by ex-Communists and disillusioned fellow travelers. Fischer took offense when he was labeled an ex-Communist, because he had never joined a Communist Party, having only been sympathetic to the Soviet cause. In a note for a biographical entry, he referred to himself as a "left-of-center liberal who favors drastic social reform to improve living conditions" and an "active anti-imperialist." He was also called a "liberal internationalist," and his critical but utilitarian-humanitarian beliefs placed him among those liberals who have been called "believing skeptics." His publications about the Soviet Union include studies of Soviet foreign relations and biographies of Stalin (1952) and Lenin (1964), the latter winning the National Book Award. (A complete list of his books can be found in the Appendix.)

Fischer's life of free-lance writing, lecturing and extensive traveling settled down with his appointment as a research associate at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in December 1958. In 1961 he became a lecturer at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School, where he taught Soviet-American relations and Soviet foreign politics, until his death on January 15, 1970.

Fischer, Markoosha.

Bertha "Markoosha" Fischer

Bertha "Markoosha" Fischer was a Russian-born translator, interpretor, and writer. She married Louis Fischer, an American journalist and writer. With Fischer and their children she lived and worked in the Soviet Union, New York, and Berlin.

Markoosha wrote her autobiography, My Lives in Russia, which appeared in 1944. In it, she tried to explain the life of the Russian people and the early appeal of Communism to her. She wrote articles and reviews, two novels (1948 and 1956), and in 1962 Reunion in Moscow, a Russian Revisits Her Country. Between 1948 and 1951 she worked in displaced persons camps for the International Rescue and Relief
 Committee (IRRC).

This collection consists of correspondence, interviews, articles, notes, lectures, speeches, photographs, and audiovisual materials that document Fischer's life as a journalist, writer, commentator on international affairs, and a founder of the Liberal Party (1944). The collection includes the papers of Fischer's wife, Bertha "Markoosha" Mark Fischer, as well as family correspondence and papers. General correspondence focuses on the Soviet Union, India, and Spain during the Spanish Civil War and is primarily personal in nature. Notable correspondents and interviewees include Svetlana Allilueva, Georgii Chicherin, Jawarhalal Nehru, Eleanor Roosevelt, President Sukarno of Indonesia, Josep Broz Tito, Sumner Welles, and Fischer's sons, George and Victor. Fischer's service in Palestine, early attempts at making his 1950 book on Gandhi into a motion picture, his ideas for undermining Stalin's position in Soviet public opinion, and his early life and life in Princeton are well documented. Other important correspondence documents Fischer's impressions of interviewees, his involvement in the Spanish Civil War, and relationships with publishers and the media. Writings contain Fischer's articles for magazines and lectures, speeches, reviews and notes. Interviews and conversations are with politicians and groups of people Fischer met in his overseas travel. Financial and administrative records include tax returns and appointment books. Clippings and reviews document Fischer's public life and book reviews. Miscellaneous items relate to Fischer's life and include his early research papers on the Soviet Union. Photographs and films document Fischer's early work and travel and the Fischer family, and sound recordings include Fischer's talks and interviews.

The Markoosha Fischer Papers document her life in Europe as well as her time in the United States and include family and other correspondence, writings, and personal materials. Notably, Markoosha's papers contain material relating to her own books, which were based on her experiences in the Soviet Union and in Germany where she worked in displaced persons camps for the International Rescue and Relief Committee (IRRC) between 1948 and 1951. Her unpublished manuscripts include a full account of her experiences as a secretary and translator at the 1922 Genoa Conference, with a description of the Russian officials she met.

Fischer, Louis. Men and Politics, An Autobiography. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1940. Fischer, Markoosha. My Lives in Russia. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1944. Raucher, Alan. "Beyond the God that Failed: Louis Fischer, Liberal Internationalist". The Historian 44, No. 2 (1982): 174-189.

The papers were donated by George and Victor Fischer in 1970, following the wishes of their father. The papers of Markoosha Fischer, including family papers, were added after her death in 1977.

One folder of photographs and a letter to Fischer from K.C. Agarwala were donated in January, 2019 by Deirdre (Randall) Petree (ML.2019.006).

For preservation reasons, original analog and digital media may not be read or played back in the reading room. Users may visually inspect physical media but may not remove it from its enclosure. All analog audiovisual media must be digitized to preservation-quality standards prior to use. Audiovisual digitization requests are processed by an approved third-party vendor. Please note, the transfer time required can be as little as several weeks to as long as several months and there may be financial costs associated with the process. Requests should be directed through the Ask Us Form.

This collection was processed by Helene van Rossum in 2000, with the assistance of Desmond Dorsey '99, Bev Prewitt '02, Lindsey Tripp '04. Finding aid written by Helene van Rossum in 2000. Finding aid updated by Phoebe Nobles in February, 2019.

No appraisal information is available.

People
Organization
Subject
Place

Publisher
Public Policy Papers
Finding Aid Author
Helene van Rossum
Finding Aid Date
2001
Sponsor
These papers were processed with the generous support of George Fischer.
Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research use.

Use Restrictions

Single copies may be made for research purposes. To cite or publish quotations that fall within Fair Use, as defined under U. S. Copyright Law, no permission is required. For instances beyond Fair Use, any copyright vested in the donor has passed to The Trustees of Princeton University and researchers do not need to obtain permission, complete any forms, or receive a letter to move forward with use of donor-created materials within the collection. For materials in the collection not created by the donor, or where the material is not an original, the copyright is likely not held by the University. In these instances, it is the responsibility of the researcher to determine whether any permissions related to copyright, privacy, publicity, or any other rights are necessary for their intended use of the Library's materials, and to obtain all required permissions from any existing rights holders, if they have not already done so. Princeton University Library's Special Collections does not charge any permission or use fees for the publication of images of materials from our collections. The department does request that its collections be properly cited and images credited. More detailed information can be found on the Copyright, Credit and Citations Guidelines page on our website. If you have a question about who owns the copyright for an item, you may request clarification by contacting us through the Ask Us! form.

Collection Inventory

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 1, General Correspondence, 1919-1970 [bulk dates 1935-1969], contains correspondence, arranged alphabetically by last name of correspondent, with publishers, politicians, writers, ambassadors, political activists, and friends around the world. Correspondence with his wife and children can be found among the family papers (Series 9). Topics include World War II and early Cold War issues, American politics and international relations, with a special emphasis on the Soviet Union, India, and Spain during its civil war. Much of the correspondence is personal, some reflecting longstanding friendships with people whom Fischer met in the various countries that he visited, including ambassadors and their wives, journalists and politicians. Where the correspondence was not strictly personal, Fischer kept carbon copies of the letters he wrote, which can sometimes be found on the back of the letters to which he replied. Reports on his conversations with politicians or his journeys may be found here too.

The series contains correspondence with numerous people whom Fischer knew through his work, including Josip Tito, President Sukarno of Indonesia, Robert Oppenheimer, Eleanor Roosevelt, Robert Kennedy, Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. Of particular note is the correspondence with George Chicherin, Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, 1918-1929, which contains carbon copies of transcripts of Chicherin's detailed comments and corrections (in English) on Fischer's manuscript The Soviets in World Affairs (1930). (The original correspondence was donated to the Yale University Library.) Other correspondence reflects Fischer's attempts to influence politicians such as Franklin Roosevelt (about World War II strategy and India), John F. Kennedy, Dwight D. Eisenhower, United Nations Secretary Dag Hammarskjöld, Belgian prime minister Paul-Henri Spaak (about the need of a gesture towards Italy in 1948 to curb Communist influence), and Anthony Eden (discussing the casualties in Spain, 1938). In these letters, Fischer spoke his mind. He corrected Eleanor Roosevelt on a point about the Soviet Union's foreign policy, and he chided Dean Acheson for wanting to resign his post because of the low salary. Correspondence with other notable people, often perfunctory, can also be found in the general A-Z files.

Much of the correspondence pertains to India. Fischer corresponded with many Indian politicians and activists, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Yusuf Meherally, Pyarelal, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, and Jayaprakash Narayan. These letters shed light on the political developments and differences in India during the period before and after independence. Some of the correspondence, such as letters from Chester Bowles, American ambassador to India, 1963-1969, contains personal and off-the-record remarks. There is original correspondence from Mohandas K. Gandhi, as well as correspondence with Gandhi's disciples and family members. The correspondence with Motilal Kothari details the early attempts to turn Fischer's biography of Gandhi into a motion picture film. (Fischer gave away the film rights.) Russian film director Sergei Mikhaylovitch Eisenstein is the subject of other correspondence. Fischer communicated with Upton Sinclair on behalf of Eisenstein concerning a conflict over payments for the Moscow-Hollywood production Thunder over Mexico (1933), for which Sinclair and his friends had furnished money.

To understand Fischer's early life, the correspondence with Eiga Shapiro (1918-1921) is important. Shapiro worked for the Zionist Commission in Palestine, and the original letters Fischer sent to her when he served as a volunteer in the Jewish Legion for Palestine are rich in details. Of general biographical interest is the correspondence between Fischer and his publishers and editors, as it contains copies of his own letters, and sheds light on his personal life. The correspondence with Freda Kirchway, editor of The Nation, is of particular importance, as it includes many details of Fischer's life before 1938. This file contains Fischer's outgoing letters, probably returned to him for reference. (Fischer's letters to Markoosha from this period were destroyed before the family left the Soviet Union.) Correspondence with Harper & Brothers in 1956 includes Fischer's views on foreign policy that he wrote at editor Cass Canfield's request for use in Adlai Stevenson's electoral campaign.

Some of the correspondence discusses Fischer's projects and ideas. In 1945, when he publicly left The Nation, he corresponded with various people (including Eleanor Roosevelt) about a magazine devoted to international affairs he wanted to start with the help of Sumner Welles. (Welles later withdrew his support.) During the Second World War, because of his charisma and outspoken views on the horrors of fascism and dictatorships, the Office of War Information and the War Finance Committee asked Fischer to speak at various occasions and make radio broadcasts. Later, Fischer communicated with CIA director Walter Bedell Smith, detailing his views on how best to undermine Stalin's position in Soviet public opinion. Fischer was an active member of the Congress of Cultural Freedom, which sponsored international cultural exchanges. He was among the majority of members who voted against accepting director Michael Josselson's resignation in 1967, after it became known that the Congress's activities and sponsorships were funded by the Central Intelligence Agency.

Much of the later correspondence documents Fischer's life in Princeton, including the correspondence with his research assistant and close friend Deirdre Randall, and correspondence with academics, including former ambassador to the Soviet Union, George Kennan, who brought Fischer to work at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in 1958. The two exchanged views on both scholarly and political matters: in a 1959 exchange Fischer commented on Kennan's proposals on disarmament and asked Kennan to pass on certain ideas to people "with the ear of Eisenhower" in Washington. Other Princeton correspondents include Don Wolfe, Elias Lowe, Robert Oppenheimer, and Princeton University president Robert Goheen, who consulted Fischer about the student riot of 1963. In 1967, Fischer wrote Michael Josselson about his visit to see Oppenheimer on his death bed. Fischer had a brief relationship with Svetlana Allilueva, Stalin's youngest daughter, who defected from the Soviet Union in 1967 and settled in Princeton. In fact, the correspondence series reveals that Fischer was involved with many women, and love letters can also be found in the file "unknown correspondents" (alphabetically arranged by first name, if present).

Physical Description

14 boxes

A, 1928-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Abramovich, Raphael, 1948. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Acheson, Dean, 1947-1959. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Agarwala, K.C., 1964. 1 box.
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1 box

Agron (Agronsky), Gershon and Ethel, 1929. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Agronsky, Martin, 1947-1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Allen, Betty, circa 1948-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Allilueva, Svetlana Stalina, 1968-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

America's Town Meeting of the Air, 1944-1952. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Attlee, Clement R, 1941-1946. 1 folder.
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1 folder

B, 1927-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Baldwin, Roger N, 1944-1959. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Beard, Charles, 1934. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Benson, Mary, 1950-1958. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Benton, William, 1947-1954. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Berberova, Nina, 1965-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Berger, Joseph, 1957-1960. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Berkman, Alesander, 1925. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Berle, Adolf A., Jr, 1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Berman, Ethel, 1931. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bernardean, Francoise, 1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bernstein, Marver and Sheva, 1964-1970. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bevin, Jennie Lee, 1945-1947. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bierring, Ole, 1966. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Billikopf, Jacob, 1932-1950. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Black, Cyril E. and Corinne, 1962-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bliven, Bruce, 1942-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bohlen, Charles E, 1947-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Booke, Mrs. Sorrell (Miranda), 1953-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Boothby, Robert, 1942-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bornholdt, Mrs. Eivind (Tordis), 1943-1960. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bose, Nirmal Kumar, 1951-1953. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bourgois, Christian, 1964-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bowers, Robert E, 1963. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bowles, Chester, 1952-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bracken, Brendan, 1941. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Brainin, Joseph, 1964-1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Brandt & Brandt, 1945-1950. 1 folder.
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1 folder

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 1941-1964. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Brohi, A. K, 1961-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Buber-Neumann, Margarete, 1962-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Buck, Pearl and Walsh, Richard J, 1942-1959. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bull, Mrs. Bartle (Rosemary), 1952-1963. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bullitt, William C, 1943. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Bundy, William P, 1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

C, 1929-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Calman-Levy (Manes Sperber), 1951-1953. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), 1960-1962. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Cantril, Hadley, 1952-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Case, Clifford P, 1963-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Celler, Emanuel, 1946-1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Chakravarty, Amiya, 1949-1950. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Chamberlin, William Henry and Sonya, 1940-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Chatuvedi, Pandit B. Das (Garrison Girl School), 1950-1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Cherne, Leo, 1962. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Chicago Housing Authority, 1940. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Chicherin, George, 1929-1930. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Churchill, Winston, 1929. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Columbia Broadcasting Systems Inc. (CBS), 1941-1950. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Corey, Lewis and Olga, 1943-1945. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Cousins, Norman, 1945-1954. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Cripps, Sir Stafford and Isobel, 1940-1942. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Crossman, R.H.S., 1948-1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Culbertson, Ely, 1943-1945. 1 folder.
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1 folder

D, 1937-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Daily Herald (London), 1930. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Daniel, Clifton, 1956-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Daves, Joan (Agent), 1965-1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Dayal, Rajeshwar & Sushila, 1955-1970. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Defense Intelligence School, 1962-1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Desai, Morarji, 1952-1966. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Djilas, Milovan, 1960-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Douglas, William O, 1943-1953. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1940-1949. 1 folder.
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1 folder

E, 1929-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Eden, Anthony, 1938. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Einstein, Albert, 1947. 1 folder.
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1 folder

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Eisenhower, Dwight D, 1954. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Elath, Eliahu & Zehava, 1955-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Ernst, Morris, 1964-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Esquire, 1961. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Evatt, Herbert V, 1947. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Ewing, Gordon, dates not examined. 1 folder.
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1 folder

F, 1941-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Farrell, James T, 1966. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Feis, Herbert, 1959-1961. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Fight for Freedom, Inc, 1941. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Fischer, Shifrah and Ida, 1919. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Fisher, Welthy, 1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Fles, Pearl R, 1938. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Foreign Affairs (Hamilton Fish Armstrong), 1929-1964. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Foreign Policy Association, 1945-1948. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Frankfurter, Felix, 1943-1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Fredborg, Arvid, 1960-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Freeman, Joseph and Charmion, 1950-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Friends of the Spanish Republic (William Shirer), 1945. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Fry, Varian, 1945. 1 folder.
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1 folder

G, 1927-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gaitskell, Hugh, 1962. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Galbraith, John Kenneth, 1960-1961. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gandhi, Devadas, 1950-1952. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gandhi, Manilal and Sita, 1948-1950. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gandhi, Mohandas K, 1942-1948. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gannett, Lewis, 1945. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gavin, James M, 1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gemmell, Edgar M. and Janet, 1963-1970. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gervasi, Mrs. Frank H. (Kay), 1952. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Ghosh, Sudhir, 1952-1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Goheen, Robert F. and Margaret, 1962-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Goldberg, Arthur J, 1966. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Goldman, Eric F, 1964-1967. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gollancz, Victor, 1941-1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Graham, Frank, 1961. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Grepp, Gerda, 1937-1940. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Griffith, Sanford, 1962-1966. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gross, Babette L, 1956-1962. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gross, Ernest, 1957. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gruening, Ernest, 1952. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Gunther, John and Frances, 1941-1947. 1 folder.
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1 folder

H, 1938-1970. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hainworth, Victoria, circa 1966-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hammarskjöld, Dag, 1958. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Handler, Meyer, 1964. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hare, Betty, 1942-1945. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hargrove, Gale, 1952-1954. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harper & Brothers, 1944-1963. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harper & Row, 1964-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harper's Magazine (John Fischer), 1952-1964. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harrigan, Susan, 1965-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harriman, W. Averell, 1951-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harris, Helen M, 1945-1960. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Harvard University, Russian Research Center, 1959. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hayman, Peter, 1966-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Henderson, Loy W, 1939-1955. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Henkel, Gabriele, 1966-1968. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Heumann, Johanna, 1951-1957. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hildebrandt, Rainer, 1953-1955. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hillman, Sidney, 1944. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hindus, Maurice, 1941. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hirsch, Felix E, 1961-1964. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hobson, Laura, 1940-1961. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Howard, Edmund, 1955-1956. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Howard University, 1962. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hughes, Alice, 1943. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hull, Cordell, 1939. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Humphrey, Hubert H, 1949-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hurwitz, Henry, 1932. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hutchins, Robert M, 1959-1964. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Hutheesing, Krishna, 1947-1966. 1 folder.
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1 folder

I, 1941-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1949. 1 folder.
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1 folder

India Association of Princeton, 1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

International Rescue and Relief Committee, 1948. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Iowa Committee for Atomic Energy Education, 1950. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Isaacs, Stanley M, 1943-1948. 1 folder.
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1 folder

J, 1937-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Jackson, Robert H, 1946. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Jameson, Storm, 1941-1944. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Janeway, Carol, 1939. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Jessup, Philip C, 1955. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Johnson, Louis, 1939-1954. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Jonathan Cape Ltd., Publishers, 1929. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Jones, Alfred Winslow and Mary, 1960-1963. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Jones, Howard P, 1958-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Josselson, Michael, 1953-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

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K, 1927-1969. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Kabir, Humayun, 1959. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Kalb, Bernard, 1963-1965. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Kallen, Horace M, 1951. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Kaufman, Edgar J. and Liliane, 1939. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Kaur, Rajkumari Amrit, 1946-1963. 1 folder.
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1 folder

Kaysen, Carl, 1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kelley, Patrick, 1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kennan, George, 1947-1970. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Kennedy, John F, 1960-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kennedy, Robert F, 1964-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Khan, Zafrulla, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kingdon, Frank, 1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kirchway, Freda (The Nation), 1920-1945. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Knapp, Elizabeth, 1952-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Koestler, Arthur and Cynthia, 1941-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Komarovsky, Mirra, and Marcus A. Heyman, 1944-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Konvitz, Milton R. and Mary, 1962-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Korn, Richard Kaye and Peggy, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kothari, Motilal, 1961-1969. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Kuh, Frederick, 1930-1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

L, 1932-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Labedz, Leopold, 1968-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lall, Arthur S, 1953-1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Landman, David, 1965-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Laski, Harold, 1937-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lasky, Melvin J, 1948-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lawrence, Gertrude, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

League for Industrial Democracy (Harry F. Laidler), 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lee, Ivy, 1930-1932. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Leger, Alexis, 1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lehman, Herbert, 1948-1955. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lerner, Max, 1936. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Leshchenko, Tatiana, 1931-1932. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Levine, Isaac Don, 1959-1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Litvinov, Ivy, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Litvinov, Maxim, 1930. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lloyd George, David, 1937. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lockwood, William W, 1963-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

London Times, 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Look Magazine, 1948-1956. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lorant, Stefan, 1956-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lord, Mary, 1956-1960. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lowe, Elias Avery, 1961-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lowenthal, Richard, 1956. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Luce, Clare Boothe, 1941-1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Luce, Henry R, 1945-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lyons, Leonard, 1946-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

M, 1939-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mackay, R.W.G. (Kim), 1944-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mackey, Bergliot (Bornholdt), 1948-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

MacLeish, Archibald, 1942-1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Magnes, Judah Leon, 1946-1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Malraux, André, 1937-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mann, Erika, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Marshall, George C, 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Martin, Kingsley, 1939-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Martin, William McChesney, Jr, 1964-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Martindell, Anne, 1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Masani, Minoo and Shakuntala, 1946-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Massing, Paul, 1938-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

McBride, Mary Margaret, 1943-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Meherally, Yusuf, 1942-1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mehta, G.L., 1954-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mehta, Ved, 1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Meyer, Kissel, Matz, Reynolds & Seward, 1955. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Miksche, Ferdinand Otto, 1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Miles, Rufus E, 1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Moley, Raymond, 1933. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mooley, M.C.R., 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Morgenstern, Oskar and Dorothy, 1961-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Morrison, Herbert, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Moseley, Philip E, 1948-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mountbatten, Edwina, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mowrer, Edgar A, 1944-1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Munzenberg, Willi, 1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Murphy, Robert & Mildred, 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mussolini, Benito, 1935. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Muste, A.J., 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Myrdal, Gunnar, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

N, 1935-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nabokov, Nicolas, 1946-1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Naoraji, Kurshed, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Narasimhan, C.V., 1964-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Narayan, Jayaprakash, 1946-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nation, The, 1930-1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

National Book Committee, 1965-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), 1959-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

National City Bank of NY, 1931. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Neal, Fred Warner, 1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Neame, Elizabeth (Monroe), 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Negrin, Juan, 1937-1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Materials Viewable Online
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Nehru, B.K., 1960-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1938-1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nehru, Rojan and Ratan, 1942-1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New School for Social Research, 1959-1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New York Herald Tribune, 1939-1960. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New York Herald Tribune Book Review (Irita Van Doren), 1926-1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New York Mirror (Waverly Root), 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New York Public Library, 1950-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New York Times, 1933-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

New York, State University of, 1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nicolaevsky, Boris I, 1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Niles, David K, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Norman, Dorothy, 1946-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notestein, Frank W. and Daphne, 1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nu, U, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nye, Gerald P, 1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

O, 1931-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

O'Connor, Nancy, 1965-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Oliver, Molli, 1942-1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Oppenheimer, Robert, 1959-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Oram, Harold L, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Oxnam, G. Bromley, 1948-1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

P, 1941-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pascal, Gabriel, 1953-1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Passin, Herbert, 1953-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pasternak, Boris, 1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pepper, Claude, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Phillips, William, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pinchot, Gifford and Cornelia Bryce, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Placzek, Hannelore (Peiser), 1953-1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Materials Viewable Online
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Plakas, Jane (Plimpton), 1946-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Plumb, Robert L, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

PM, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Potter, Russell, 1949-1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Princeton Adult School, 1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Princeton University Library, 1962-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Princeton University Press, 1950-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Puaux, Francois & Anne, 1951-1969. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Putnam, Peter Brock, 1961-1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pyarelal (Nayal), 1946-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Q, 1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Quezon, Manuel L, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Quo, Tai-Chi, 1946-1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

R, 1930-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Radharishnan, S, 1962-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti, 1948-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Randall, Deirdre, 1957-1969. 4 folders.
Physical Description

4 folders

Randolph, A. Philip, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Random House, 1940-1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rau, Kripa, 1956-1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Raymond, Jack, 1966-1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Reader's Digest, 1941-1966. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Reston, James, 1955. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Reuther, Victor G, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rimano, Richard, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Roberts, Owen J, 1946-1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rockefeller Foundation, 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rodman, Samuel (Shy), 1930. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Romulo, Carlos P, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Ronen, Omry, 1966-1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1938-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Roosevelt, Franklin D, 1939-1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Roosevelt Library, Franklin D, 1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rothberg, Harvey, 1961-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rubenstein, Frank J. and Mary, 1950-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rubin, Morris H. (The Progressive), 1947-1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Ruml, Beardsley, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rusk, Dean, 1959-1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

S, 1927-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Salisbury, Harrison E, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Samuel, Maurice, 1940. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sarper, Selim, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr, 1962-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Schulte, Luise, 1950-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Schwarz, Solomon and Vera Aleksandrova, 1961-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Scott, John, 1956-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jacques and Madeleine, 1950-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Shapiro, Eiga, 1918-1921. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

Sheean, Vincent and Dinah, 1928-1940. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sigmond, Ida and Harry, 1936-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sinclair, Upton, 1933-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Singh, J.J., 1942-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Smith, Walter Bedell, 1951-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

South Philadelphia High School, 1962-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Spaak, Paul-Henri, 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Spackman, Peter and Nancy, 1963-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Spivak, Lawrence E, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Stalin, Joseph V, 1933-1938. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Stanton, E.F. and Josie, 1952-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Steffens, Ella Winter, 1930. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Stettinius, Edward R., Jr, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Strachey, John, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Strang, William, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Strauss, Russell and Pat, 1938-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Streit, Clarence, 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sturges, Paul M, 1962-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sukarno, H, 1956-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sullivan, Janet, 1944-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Summerskill, Edith, 1938-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Swing, Raymond Gram, 1942-1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

T, 1925. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Taft, Robert A, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tagore, Rathindranath, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Taylor, Harold, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thant, U, 1964-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thomas, Norman, 1937. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thompson, Dorothy, 1932-1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thompson, Llewellyn E, 1964-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thong, Huynh Sanh, 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Time and Tide, 1942-1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tito, Josip Broz, 1952-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tolstoy, Lydia, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Trew, H. Gwynne, 1925-1926. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Troitsky, Nikolai A. ("Boris Yakovlev"), 1948-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tucker, Robert C, 1962-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tugwell, Rexford G, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

U, 1943-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

United Press Associations, 1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Utah, State University of (Summer School), 1951-1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

V, 1928-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Vandenberg, Arthur H, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Vayo, Julio Alvarez del and Luise, 1938-1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Materials Viewable Online
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Veerarasharam, P.V., 1962-1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Verlag, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1964-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1930-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Vlastos, Gregory, 1961-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

W, 1929. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

W. Colston Leigh, Inc, 1951-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wake Up America (Program), 1943-1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Walker, Agnes (Knickerbocker), 1942-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Walsh, J. Raymond, 1945-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Walsh, Richard J, 1943-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

War Finance Committee, Treasury Department, 1943-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

War Information, Office of, 1942-1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Washington Post, 1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Washington, University of, 1957-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Watumull, Ellen Jensen and G.J., 1948-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Webb, Beatrice, 1935. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Weisgal, Meyer W, 1955. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Welles, Sumner, 1941-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

White, William Allen, 1940-1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wilkinson, Ellen E, 1929-1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Willen, Joseph, Pearl, and Debbie, 1941-1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Willen, Paul, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Willkie, Wendell L, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wilson, Sir Arnold, 1938. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Winant, John Gilbert, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wodak, Walter, 1956-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wofford, Harris, 1946-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wolfe, Bertram D. and Ella, 1962-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wolfe, Don M. and Mary, 1962-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Woodman, Dorothy, 1946-1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wright, Richard, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Writers' War Board, 1944-1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wyatt, Woodrow, 1946-1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Y, 1941-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Yager, Helen, 1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Yale University Library, 1946-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Z, 1944-1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unidentified (first names A-N ), 1930-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unidentified (first names O-Z and unsigned), 1937-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 2, Subject Correspondence, 1936-1969, contains correspondence alphabetically arranged by topic that Fischer kept on countries he visited, most of his publications, and other subjects. Of special interest are the country files, grouped under the heading "international," which contain accounts of his impressions of the people he met or interviewed. Fischer wrote these accounts as letters to friends and kept a copy specifically for these files. Other correspondence relating to these visits is often included as well, primarily with people from within the country itself. This is especially the case with the files about India, which Fischer visited at least four times between 1942 and 1952. They contain correspondence from people in India not present in the General Correspondence series commenting on the domestic situation. Correspondence with people or organizations sympathizing with the cause of Indian independence, including Fischer's own project to raise money among friends for a tractor, will be found in separate subject files.

The file on Spain documents Fischer's involvement with the Spanish Civil War and his role as an intermediary with the American Section of the International Brigades in the repatriation of American volunteers. The file includes some drafts for speeches and announcements that Fischer may have ghostwritten for others and confidential correspondence with Ambassador Claude Bowes concerning the American embargo on the shipment of arms to Spain. Some correspondence in this file is in Spanish and German. The file on the Soviet Union contains correspondence concerning his 1956 visit, eighteen years after his last visit in May 1938.

The files on books and miscellaneous publications contain correspondence with both American and foreign publishers, the latter usually concerning foreign translations and copyright, especially letters to Jonathan Cape and Victor Gollancz. Correspondence with his primary publishers Duell, Sloan & Pearce, and later Harper's, and other publishers and journals can be found in the General Correspondence series. The subject files on individual book publications contain letters from readers and literary editors. The files on Men and Politics (1941), The Story of Indonesia (1959), and The Life of Lenin (1964) also contain correspondence concerning research and earlier drafts of the manuscripts. Of special interest in the Lenin file is correspondence with Radio Liberty in London, which broadcast an interview with Fischer on the book in 1964 and evoked reactions from listeners in the Soviet Union, to whom Fischer responded in Russian in a later broadcast (transcripts included).

The miscellaneous publications folders, which start in 1947, include agreements and general correspondence with publishers, journals, agents, and sometimes readers, who are not found among the names in the General Correspondence series. Of special interest is the correspondence of 1947-1949, which documents conflicts with publishers in India over payments, and includes some observations of the situation in India and the decline of public interest in Fischer's columns in Indian newspapers (1947). The correspondence of 1959 includes an exchange with the Zionist Echo editor concerning accusations by the Israeli Minister of Development Mordechai Bentov that he was misquoted by Fischer in the book This is Our World. Another subject file documents Fischer's role as one of the initiators and vice-chairmen of the Liberal Party, founded in 1944. Documentation on Fischer's appointments and courses at the Woodrow Wilson School may be found in the file on Princeton University.

Physical Description

5 boxes

Awards, 1951-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Conferences: Congress for Cultural Freedom, Rhodes, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Conferences: Status of Soviet Jews, 1963. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Conferences: Miscellaneous, circa 1945-1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

India: American and international opinion, 1942-1969. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

India: Tractor fund for village, 1949-1955. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

India League of America, 1948-1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Burma, 1957-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: England, 1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: France, 1950-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Germany, 1951-1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: India, 1942-1969. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

International journeys and correspondence: Indonesia, 1958-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Italy, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Japan, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Pakistan, 1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Philippines, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Poland, 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Soviet Union, 1956. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Spain, 1936-1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

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International journeys and correspondence: Turkey, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International journeys and correspondence: Yugoslavia, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Liberal Party, 1944-1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Princeton University, 1960-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Dawn of Victory, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Empire, 1944-1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Gandhi and Stalin, 1947-1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Gandhi, His Life and Message for the World, 1953-1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: The Great Challenge, 1946-1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: The Life and Death of Stalin, 1951-1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: The Life of Lenin, 1960-1968. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: The Life of Mahatma Gandhi, 1949-1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Men and Politics, 1940-1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Russia's Road from Peace to War, 1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Russia, America and the World, 1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: The Story of Indonesia, 1958-1960. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: This is Our World, 1956-1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: A Week with Gandhi, 1942-1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Publications: Miscellaneous, 1947-1959. 4 folders.
Physical Description

4 folders

Publications: Miscellaneous, 1960-1969. 6 folders.
Physical Description

6 folders

Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact, 1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Spanish Refugees, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Speeches: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Speeches: Riddle of India, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 3, Writings, 1921-1970, is arranged alphabetically by type, then chronologically and contains articles and reviews, lectures, speeches and discussions, manuscript drafts and research notes. The articles through 1945 were mainly written for The Nation, though early articles for Russian papers and Jewish-American journals are also found, the latter concerning the Jewish colonies in Russia and Poland. Foreign translations are included, mostly for Reader's Digest. Drafts of articles are included if they appear not to have been published. Annotations indicate that Fischer reworked some of his articles for his books. The lectures, speeches and discussions contain texts and printed discussions with others on radio broadcasts. Complementary information about Fischer's public appearances in lecture tours and broadcasts can be found among the press clippings in Series 6. The manuscript drafts concern a projected book entitled The Real Russia, or Russia, Reality and Utopia (ca. 1961), about the post-Stalin era at the time of Khrushchev in the Soviet Union. The research notes also contain some diaries and diary entries and notes on conversations. Of special interest are the typescript diaries concerning Fischer's first month in Spain (September-October, 1936), conversations with London politicians and others about World War II from July-October 1941, and a visit to India in 1942. The general notes are especially extensive for 1952 and 1958. In 1952 Fischer went on a nine-month world tour that included visits to Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and Yugoslavia. In 1958 he visited Indonesia and the Netherlands for research for his book The Story of Indonesia (1959). Some notes in the series concern conversations with unidentified people who are referred to with code names. There are similar notes in Series 4, Interviews and Conversations.

Physical Description

11 boxes

Articles, 1921-1926. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Articles, 1927-1936. 5 folders.
Physical Description

5 folders

Articles, 1937-1946. 6 folders.
Physical Description

6 folders

Articles, 1947-1954. 5 folders.
Physical Description

5 folders

Articles, 1955-1970. 6 folders.
Physical Description

6 folders

Lectures, speeches and discussions, 1926-1956. 6 folders.
Physical Description

6 folders

Lectures, speeches and discussions, 1957-1969. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Manuscript drafts, circa 1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes, including note books on Poland, 1922-1927. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes, 1928-1931. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notebooks on Soviet Union, circa 1927-1933. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes, 1932-1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes: Spanish diary Sep 18-Oct 16, 1936, 1936. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Materials Viewable Online
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Notes, 1940-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes: London diary Jul 19 - Oct 8, 1941, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes: India and Gandhi diary May 24 - Jul 14, 1942, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes, 1947-1955. 5 folders.
Physical Description

5 folders

Notebooks: Yugoslavia, 1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notebooks: Germany 1953, Czechoslovakia 1956, 1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Notes, 1956-1959. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

Notes, 1960-1969. 4 folders.
Physical Description

4 folders

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 4, Interviews and Conversations, 1928-1967, contains records of conversations with politicians ranging in length from complete interviews to brief notes. These are arranged alphabetically by last name of the interviewee, then followed by five folders for specific overseas trips. Many of the latter records refer to people using code names. For most interviewees, Fischer wrote their real identity on the paper at a later stage. Remaining unidentified people are filed at the end of the series (see also the research notes in Series 3). The most extensive interviews are with President Tito of Yugoslavia (1952), President Sukarno of Indonesia (1958, 1960), and Sumner Welles, Undersecretary of State, with whom he had several discussions in 1944-1945. The discussions with Welles eventually led to their plan to start a liberal international affairs journal. Conversations that Fischer had with groups of people (many in code names) during visits to London, Berlin and India can be found at the end of the series. Some records of conversations may also be found as letters Fischer sent to friends (Series 1).

Physical Description

2 boxes

Abdulgani, Ruslan, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Acheson, Dean, 1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Adenauer, Konrad, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Aiyar, C. P. Ramaswami, and Sundaram, 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Atlee, Clement R, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Ba Swe, U, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Bannerjee, P. K, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Benés, Edward, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Berle, Adolph A, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Boothby, Robert, 1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Buck, Pearl; Balmer; Jay Lovestone and unidentified, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Budberg, Moura, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Chatteerjee, Gen, undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Ciechanovsky (Polish Ambassador), 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Clay, Gen. Lucius D, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Cleveland, Harlan (See: Averell Harriman), 1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Cot, Pierre, 1940. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Culbertson, Ely, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Desai, Morarji, 1960. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Deshmukh, Sir Chintaman D, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Djilas, Milovan and Boris Kidrich, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Djuanda, H, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Douglas, William O, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Drum, Shagrir, undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Erhard, Ludwig, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Fontaine, Andre, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Frankfurter, Felix, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Gandamana, Pik, circa 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Gandhi, Mohandas K, 1942-1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Gaus, 1928. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Goldberg, Arthur J, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Grant, Heber J., president Mormon Church, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Halifax, Lord, 1942-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Hampton, Colonel Thomas K, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Harifah, Ambassador, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Harriman, Averell, and Harlan Cleveland (1962), 1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Hatta, Mohammed, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Helb (New Delhi), 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Henderson, Loy W, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Henry-Hays, Gaston, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Hillman, Sidney, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Honig, Pieter, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Hoyer-Millar, Frederick, 1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Hull, Cordell, 1942-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Jackson, Robert H, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Jessup, Philip, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Jinnah, Mohammed Ali, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Johnson, Louis, 1942-1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kennedy, Robert, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Khan, Ayub, 1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Kirkpatrick, Lord Ivone, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

La Follette, Robert, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lancaster, W.W., 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lee, Jenny, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lin,Yu-tang, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Linlithgow, Lord, and P.R.S.Mani, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lokanathan, P.S., 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Magsaysay, Ramón, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mahindra, K. C., and Naoroji, 1943-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mahtab, Krishna, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mayor, Lord (sic), undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

McCloy, John J, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

McLeish, Archibald, circa 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Mikolajcyk, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Morrison, Herbert, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Narasimhan (Deputy to U Thant), 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nasution, Gen. Abdul Harris, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nayar, Sushila, 1955. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nehru, Jawaharlal, undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Niles, David, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nishijima, 1956. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Nyein, U Kyaw, circa 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Ogata, Taketora, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Okazaki, Katsuo, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Oppenheimer, Robert and Kitty, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Phillips, William, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pontrjagin, Academician, and Meshchenko, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Poole, DeWitt, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Prietro, Indalecio (?), circa 1938. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Pyade, Moshe, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Quaroni, Pietro, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Quezon, President, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rajchman, Ludwig, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rankovich, Alexander, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rau, Sir Benegal, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Roem, Sugono, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rossoni, Edmondo, 1935. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Ruml, Beardsley, 1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rusk, Dean, 1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Santosa, Maria Ulfah, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Schumaker, Kurt, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Shuster, George N, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sjahrir, circa 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Smit, Dr. C, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Smith, Walter Bedell, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Soony, T.V., Ludwig Reichman and unidentified, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Spaak, Paul-Henri, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Stettinius, Edward R., Jr, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Subandrio, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sukarno, President H, 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thant, U, 1965-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tito, Josip Broz, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Van Mook, H.J., 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Vinogradov (Soviet Ambassador) and Dubinin, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Vukmanovich-Tempo, Svetozar, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wallace, Henry, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Welles, Sumner, 1941-1945. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wilkie, Wendell, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Winant, John Gilbert, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Zahir, Boesjra, circa 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Zhanin, Vitaly Alexeyvich, 1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Visit to Berlin, 1953. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Visit to India, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Visit to Indonesia and the Netherlands, circa 1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Visit to London, 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Visit to Paris, 1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unidentified people (in code names), 1941-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 5, Financial and Administrative Records, 1896-1970, contains tax returns, financial records, and appointment and address books arranged by document type. The tax return files include royalty statements and correspondence with accountants. Records of Fischer's professional and social appointments can be found in his annual appointment and address books (1937-1970), which he kept in addition to regular address books (circa 1948-1970).

Physical Description

3 boxes

Birth certificate, 1896. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Certificates and reports on teaching and army career, 1916-1920. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Passports and related documents, 1920-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Tax returns and related correspondence and papers, 1942-1968. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

Appointment and address books, 1937-1953. 4 folders.
Physical Description

4 folders

Appointment and address books, 1954-1970. 4 folders.
Physical Description

4 folders

Two address books, circa 1948-1960. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 6, Clippings and Reviews, 1926-1969, contains press clippings divided into two chronologically arranged subseries: one concerning Louis Fischer's public life and one comprising book reviews. Among the former are clippings containing Fischer's statements and views in lectures, speeches, broadcasts and other public activities. These clippings also include interviews with Fischer himself and biographical notes for publicity purposes and biographical dictionaries. The book reviews concern his most well known books, and include reviews of foreign translations.

Physical Description

7 boxes

Physical Description

2 boxes

Press clippings, 1927-1947. 6 folders.
Physical Description

6 folders

Press clippings, 1948-1969. 6 folders.
Physical Description

6 folders

Proofs and drafts: biographical entries, 1940-1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Reviews of Fischer's books.

Physical Description

5 boxes

Dawn of Victory, 1942. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Empire, 1943-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Essential Gandhi, 1962. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Gandhi and Stalin, 1947-1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Gandhi: His Life and Message for the World, 1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The God that Failed, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Great Challenge, 1946-1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Life and Death of Stalin, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Life of Lenin, 1964-1965. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

The Life of Lenin, foreign translations, 1966-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Life of Mahatma Gandhi, 1950-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Machines and Men in Russia, 1932. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Men and Politics, 1941-1942. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

Oil Imperialism, 1926-1928. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Russia Revisited, 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Russia's Road from Peace to War, 1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Soviet Journey, 1935. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Soviets in World Affairs (1st edition), 1930-1931. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Soviets in World Affairs (2nd edition), 1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Story of Indonesia, 1959. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Thirteen Who Fled, 1949. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

This is Our World, 1956. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

A Week with Gandhi, 1942-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Why Recognize Russia?, 1931. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Miscellaneous books, 1940. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 7, Memorabilia and Miscellaneous, 1914-1969, contains various items, arranged chronologically, relating to Louis Fischer's life, including his 1914 Southern High School (Philadelphia) yearbook, where he was listed with the motto "A penny saved is a penny earned," and other miscellaneous items. Some early research papers concerning the Soviet Union are also to be found.

Physical Description

1 box

Yearbook, Southern High School, Philadelphia, 1914. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Research materials concerning Soviet Union, 1918. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Various memorabilia, circa 1919-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Miscellaneous items, 1941-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

"Gigantismachiya", sculpture design by Ernst Neizvestnii, undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 8, Markoosha Fischer Papers, 1931-1977, is arranged in three subseries: Correspondence (arranged alphabetically), Writings (arranged alphabetically), and Personal Materials (arranged chronologically), which document her life in Europe as well as her time in the United States. The correspondence does not include letters with her husband and sons, which can be found in Series 9, Family Papers. Some of the general correspondence is in German or Russian, including that with Nikolai Troitsky (Boris Yakovlev), director of the Russian Library in Munich and subeditor for the book Thirteen Who Fled (1949). Another correspondent writing in Russian is Joseph A. Rosen, for whom Markoosha worked for one year in a new Jewish settlement in the Ukraine, before settling in Moscow in 1928.

There is some correspondence with Eleanor Roosevelt, through whose intervention Markoosha and her sons were able to leave the Soviet Union. Correspondence of Paul and Hede Massing, friends from Berlin and Moscow who moved to the United States in the 1930s, is also present. George and Victor Fischer stayed with the Massings for one-and-a-half years (1931-1933), and their letters in Series 9, Family Papers, complement those found here. During the McCarthy era, Hede Massing was convicted of spying for Moscow.

Of particular interest is the correspondence from the Wloch and Wolf families, other German communists who had moved to Moscow during the Nazi regime. Elsa Wolf was Markoosha's best friend in Moscow. Erna Wloch and her children, Lothar and Margot, disappeared in 1942 after the news that her husband, a victim of the Stalin purges of 1937, had died. However, both families turned up in Berlin after the war, and their correspondence covers the immediate post-war period. Erna Wloch, who died in 1946, wrote Markoosha about mutual women acquaintances and their fates under the Nazi regime. The Wolf and Wloch correspondence contains many references to and letters from the boys, Lothar Wloch and Konrad ("Koni") and Markus ("Mischa") Wolf, who were good friends with Markoosha's sons. By 1980, Konrad, who had become a respected filmmaker and head of the Academy of Arts in East Germany, was planning a film about their boyhood friendship, but died before he could complete it. His brother Markus ("Mischa") Wolf, chief of the East German foreign intelligence service, finally wrote a book on the topic: The Troika (1989).

There is disappointingly little correspondence from Markoosha's Menshevik sister Theresa Rubinstein, who served as secretary of a Russian socialist group in Germany before the First World War and with whom Markoosha lived prior to the war. (They also lived together in Copenhagen during the war.) Theresa later moved to New York. Nina Rubinstein, her daughter, was very close to Markoosha in her later years.

The Writings subseries contains material relating to Markoosha's own books, which were based on her experiences in the Soviet Union and in Germany (where she worked for the International Rescue and Relief Committee (IRRC) between 1948 and 1951). Her unpublished manuscripts contain three chapters excluded from her My Lives in Russia. The first two describe her childhood in Lithuania, her youth in a Swiss "finishing school," her time at Lausanne University, and the years afterwards, when she lived with her sister, Theresa. Of particular interest are her anecdotes concerning the Russian revolutionary exiles she met in this period, including Karl Radek, Alexandra Kollontai, Yuri Larin, and Maxim Gorki. Her third chapter, covering the period 1916-1922, contains a full account of her experiences as a secretary and translator at the 1922 Genoa Conference, with a description of all the Russian officials she met. In addition to these early chapters, there is an account of the period from July 1938 to January 1939, originally intended to be published as a sequel to My Lives in Russia. In it, Markoosha describes the Soviet secret police's attempts to recruit her after she had applied for a visa to the United States.

The unpublished manuscripts also contain drafts and notes for a third novel, Anya. Her first novel, The Nazarovs (1948), described four generations of a Russian family between 1892 and 1942 and the perspective of each family member on that time span. The Right to Love (1956), dealt with three love affairs in the post-war ruins of Berlin. In Anya, Markoosha addressed the Jewish question in the Soviet Union. For all four books, including her last, Reunion in Moscow (1962), there is a file with correspondence from the publisher (Harper's), readers and friends, and book reviews (many from scrapbooks).

The Personal Materials subseries contains memorabilia, clippings and publicity (mainly for Markoosha's lecture series), financial records and correspondence (mainly royalty statements) and appointment and address books. Among the memorabilia is a typescript copy of poems by Boris Pasternak.

Physical Description

2 boxes

Physical Description

1 box

A-Z, 1939-1975. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Andreichin, Ilsa, circa 1957. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Bychkov, Ida and Vladimir (Volodye), 1975. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Emerson, Gloria, 1971. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Halsted, Isabella (Ibby), 1958-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Harper & Brothers, 1952-1961. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Hindus, Maurice, 1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

International Rescue and Relief Committee, 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Lerner, Max, 1947. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Massing, Paul and Hede, and Herta, 1933-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Minischki, I, 1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rosen, Joseph A, 1940-1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Rubinstein, Teresa and Nina, 1931. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Troitsky, Nikolai ("Boris Yakovlev"), 1949-1955. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wloch, Erna, 1945-1946. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wloch, Margot, Lothar and Eva, 1946-1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Wolf, Elsa ("Meni"), and Konrad ("Koni"), 1939-1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unidentified, 1946-1976. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Physical Description

2 boxes

My Lives in Russia (1944), 1940-1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Nazarovs (1948), 1946-1952. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

The Right to Love (1956), 1949-1956. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Reunion in Moscow, a Russian Revisits her Country (1962), 1959-1967. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Articles, reviews and letters to the editor, 1942-1951. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unpublished manuscripts: "Childhood" and "Youth", circa 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unpublished manuscripts: "Moscow, Jul 1938-Jan 1939", undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unpublished manuscripts: "Anya", undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unpublished manuscripts: "Anya", undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Unpublished manuscripts: "Anya" (notes), undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Physical Description

1 box

Memorabilia, 1940-1958 and undated, 1940-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Clippings and publicity for lecture series, 1941-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Financial documents and correspondence, 1948-1958. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Appointment and address books, 1973-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 9, Family Papers, 1922-1978, is divided into two subseries: Family Correspondence (arranged by correspondent) and Miscellaneous Family Papers (arranged chronologically). The large majority of the family correspondence subseries is the correspondence between Louis and Markoosha, and between both of them and their sons George and Victor and their families. Because Louis and Markoosha lived very separate lives, letters written to them both were often forwarded to each other, or sent in duplicate. Letters from Louis, Markoosha, or one of the children to all family members are filed among the Louis-Markoosha correspondence; letters to or from both sons are kept among George's correspondence. The family papers concern the death of Louis and Markoosha Fischer (including estate papers) and some administrative papers.

The correspondence between Louis and Markoosha before her emigration does not contain letters from Louis apart from one in 1933 (a copy he kept); Markoosha destroyed his letters before she left the Soviet Union. Markoosha's letters for this period are an account of her daily life, the children, her jobs, health, financial situation, and news about their friends in Moscow or Berlin. Markoosha used this correspondence as a reference when she wrote My Lives in Russia. After her and her sons' emigration in 1939, the correspondence between Louis and Markoosha reflected their marital estrangement. As they did not live together, they wrote about themselves, their relationship, their writing, their children, and their financial problems, including Markoosha's need for financial support, which caused many tensions.

The first few years after the family moved to the United States seem to have been overshadowed by Markoosha's attempts to come to terms with the state of her marriage and to set up her own life as a writer and lecturer in the shadow of her husband. She lived at the farm they bought in Quakertown, Pennsylvania (next to the Massings), and was visited by Louis and their sons George and Victor, who by September 1942 had both left home. In 1944 Markoosha received her first lecture contract, and Louis sent her advice on how to maximize the publicity for her just-published book. By this time they wrote each other on a daily basis and on quite friendly terms. In addition, Markoosha filed his correspondence and press clippings, and did some typing for him.

Of particular interest is the correspondence from in the years 1948-1952, which Markoosha spent primarily in Europe. During the first year she worked for the IRRC at displaced persons camps in Germany. Part of the correspondence is about the work for the book Thirteen Who Fled, thirteen personal stories of disaffected Russian émigrés. It was a Fischer family project: Louis was the editor, Markoosha the intermediary between him and the subeditor Nikolai Troitsky (Boris Yakovlev), and Victor and his wife Gloria were translators. After this year Markoosha spent time in Italy writing, before returning to the United States in spring 1950. Markoosha's letters are manifold and lively, but Louis wrote very little in this period. He did encourage his wife to write and be creative, rather than to work for the IRRC. However, she did decide to return to work for the IRRC once more, in Paris. After returning to the United States in 1952, Markoosha went through emotional difficulties. She sold the family farm that summer, lived in various places, and came down with health problems, such that in 1954 doctors told her that she should not strain herself in any way. Louis, however, kept encouraging her to write. From 1956 on, their correspondence was strained and soon virtually nonexistent.

There is significant correspondence from George and Victor Fischer and their families to their parents, especially Markoosha. Of special interest is the correspondence of the boys' years in the Army, where George became a captain and was sent to Europe, presumably because of his knowledge of Russian. The correspondence documents their subsequent careers and family lives. Victor married Gloria Rubinstein while in the Army in 1944, and began a career in town planning and urban development. In 1951 they moved to Alaska where Victor became involved with politics and the movement for Alaskan statehood. Their children Greg, Yonni and Joe were adopted between 1957 and 1959. George followed a career in Russian studies and political science, and became professor at Brandeis, Cornell, Columbia and City University of New York. He married twice: Kitty Hoag in 1948, and Elinor (Nell) Halsted in 1958. George and Nell had two children, Sara and Mark.

The folders containing other than family correspondence consist primarily of George's correspondence concerning his father's death, papers, and estate. Among the correspondence with non-family members are some letters from Svetlana Allilueva to George after his father's death, 1970-1972.

Physical Description

10 boxes

Physical Description

9 boxes

between Louis and Markoosha, 1929-1939. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

from Louis to Markoosha, 1939-1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

from Markoosha to Louis, circa 1939-1941. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

between Louis and Markoosha, 1942-1947. 5 folders.
Physical Description

5 folders

between Louis and Markoosha, 1948-1953. 5 folders.
Physical Description

5 folders

between Louis and Markoosha, 1954-1969. 4 folders.
Physical Description

4 folders

between George and Victor and their parents, 1929-1939. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

between George and his parents, 1940-1944. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

between George and his parents, 1945-1947. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

between George and Kitty and his parents, 1948-1949. 2 folders.
Physical Description

2 folders

between George and Kitty and his parents, 1950-1954. 5 folders.
Physical Description

5 folders

between George and his parents, 1955-1957. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

between George and Nell and his parents, 1958-1964. 7 folders.
Physical Description

7 folders

between George and Nell and his parents, 1965-1977. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

between Sara and Mark Fischer and Markoosha, 1967-1977 and undated, 1967-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

between Victor and his parents, 1940-1943. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

between Victor and Gloria ("Glovit") and his parents, 1944-1969. 11 folders.
Physical Description

11 folders

between Victor and Gloria ("Glovit") and Markoosha, 1970-1977. 3 folders.
Physical Description

3 folders

from Greg, Yonni and Joe Fischer to Markoosha, 1959-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

from grandchildren to Louis, 1967-1969 and undated, 1967-1969. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

between George and Victor, 1943. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

between George and Victor and non-family members, 1946-1974. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Physical Description

2 boxes

Fischer family: Certificates of marriage, birth and naturalization and related papers, 1922. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

George Fischer: publications, 1948-1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Victor Fischer: records re his military service, 1943-1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Victor Fischer: papers re Alaskan statehood and miscellaneous, 1953-1954. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Victor Fischer: Report on a visit to the USSR for the ISEGR (Alaska), 1974. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: obituaries re his death and memorial service tributes, 1970. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: papers re his cremation, 1970. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: letters of condolence re his death, 1970. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: correspondence re the Fischer Estate, 1970-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: correspondence re the 'The Road to Yalta' (posthumous), 1970-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: correspondence re the donation of the Fischer Papers to Princeton University Library, 1970-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Louis Fischer: correspondence re the maiden and married name of Tatjana Leschenko, 1973-1978. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Markoosha Fischer: last will and testament and related papers, 1965. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Markoosha Fischer: correspondence re her medical condition and death, 1970. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Markoosha Fischer: financial records and notes re her health and death, 1974-1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Markoosha Fischer: letters of condoleance concerning her death, 1977. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 10, Photographs, circa 1890-1977, contains photographs arranged into four groups: photos relating to Louis Fischer; photos relating to Markoosha Fischer; family photographs; and others. Besides some photographs of his parents and school classes, the early Louis Fischer photographs are predominantly of his service in Britain's Jewish Legion 1917-1920. The period 1922-1938 includes images of the Soviet Union, photos with fellow foreign correspondents in Moscow and Eisenstein's film crew, cartoons of Fischer (1931), and photographs of Fischer in Spain and at the Geneva conference in 1938. The photographs for the period 1939-1946 include many photographs of Fischer with Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Photos from 1958 include a visit to Indonesia and the Rhodes conference.

The Markoosha Fischer photographs include images of her family, her youth and childhood, her work at the International Rescue and Relief Committee, including photos of the displaced persons camp in Schleissheim, and her friends and travels in that same period, as well as of a visit to the Soviet Union in 1960. The majority of photographs depicting her are family photographs. They include early photographs of Louis and Markoosha together and cover the Berlin and Moscow period (1922-1939), some photographs of the boat trip to the United States, and family scenes at the farm in Quakertown, Alaska, and elsewhere, including reunions with Erna, Margot and Lothar Wloch.

The photographs of other individuals, which do not contain any of the Fischers, have partly been used as illustrations for Fischer's books. They include many shots of Gandhi and Nehru, Stalin, Philippine secretary and later President Ramon Magsaysay (circa 1950-1957), Soviet officials and scenes, including the early 1920s, and Franklin Roosevelt's trip to Yalta in 1945. The last box contains oversize photographs, including some portraits of Louis Fischer, Alexander Kerensky, Joseph Stalin, Fischer with Tito, and pages of a family photo album (1925-1939). The latter include Moscow scenes, as well as a photo of the Open Road Group arriving in Moscow.

Physical Description

15 boxes

Louis Fischer, circa 1890-1921. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Louis Fischer, 1922-1934. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Louis Fischer, 1935-1938. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Louis Fischer, 1939-1946. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Louis Fischer, 1947-1957. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Louis Fischer, 1958. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Louis Fischer, 1959-1969. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Markoosha Fischer, 1909-1951. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Markoosha Fischer: album re her work at the IRRC, 1948-1951. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Markoosha Fischer and family life, 1922-1930s. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Family life, 1930s-1939. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Family life, 1939-1958. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Family life, 1958-1977. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Individuals and groups not including Louis Fischer or family members, 1920s-1960s. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Oversize photographs and family album 1925-1938, 1925-1965. 1 box.
Physical Description

1 box

Photographs of Louis Fischer and Others, circa 1920-1966. 1 box.
Scope and Contents

Photographs donated in January, 2019 by Deirdre (Randall) Petree, who was Fischer's editorial researcher between 1959 annd 1971.

Physical Description

1 box

Arrangement

No arrangement action taken or arrangement information not recorded at the time of processing.

Scope and Contents

Series 11, Audiovisual and Oversize Items, 1921-1970, contains primarily sound recordings, including talks and interviews that Louis Fischer gave during his life, some disc mailers of family and friends, and his memorial service in 1970. There are two black and white films, including one of family scenes in Moscow circa 1935. All items in this series are individually described in the folder list.

Physical Description

3 boxes

Film: 35mm film of family scenes, Moscow, circa 1935. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 7" reel to reel, "The God that Failed" no. 1, circa 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 7" reel to reel, "The God that Failed" no. 2, circa 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 7" reel to reel, Interview Radio Liberty 9/28/1964, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 7" reel to reel, Talk at Stephens College 3/14/1966, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 7" reel to reel, "Akron University" 3/13/1966 no. 1, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 5" reel to reel, "Akron University" 3/13/1966 no. 2, 1966. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotape, 5" reel to reel, labeled "L.F. 10:25", undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Film: 16mm Paris (?), undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotapes, 3" reel to reel, Victor Fischer's family, Alaska, 1966 December. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotapes, 3" reel to reel, Victor Fischer's family, Alaska, 1967 January-February. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotapes, 3" reel to reel, Victor Fischer's family, Alaska, 1967 February-April. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotapes, 3" reel to reel, Victor Fischer's family, Alaska, 1967 April-November. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audiotapes, 3" reel to reel, not identified, undated. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

33 1/3 LP: Richard Crossmann on The God that Failed 1/2, circa 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

33 1/3 LP: Richard Crossmann on The God that Failed 3/4, circa 1950. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

33 1/3 LP: Interview Radio Liberty (in Russian) 9/28/1964, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

33 1/3 LP: Interview re Russia's Road from Peace to War, 1969 June. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Audio tape, Interview re Russia's Road from Peace to War, 1969 June. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

33 1/3 LP: Louis Fischer's Memorial Service 1/23/1970, 1970. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: unknown contents, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: unknown contents, 1944. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: Louis Fischer to Helen Savadge, 1948. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: Carlo Perron; Nino (?), 1948 April 4. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: Martin Agronsky, 1948 April. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: George and Victor Fischer, 1948 April 4. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: George and Kitty Fischer, 1948 April 4. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: Markoosha, George and Louis Fischer, 1948 May 5. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: Gershon Agronsky, 1949 January 25. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Sound scriber disc mailer: Address to Liberal Party "There will be peace" (?), 1949 May 26. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Certificate of National Book Award, 1964. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Photo of Farewell Luncheon to Jewish Journalists by Chaim Weizmann, 1921 April 6. 1 folder.
Physical Description

1 folder

Print, Suggest