Records of the Curator of Historical Collections
Held at: Historical Medical Library of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia [Contact Us]19 S. 22nd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Historical Medical Library of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.
Overview and metadata sections
The Office of the Librarian of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia was established in 1854. Before 1851, the chairman of the Library Committee was responsible for the administration of the Library, and from 1851 to 1854, the Secretary of the College acted as librarian. In 1863, the Librarian became an officer of the College, and the by-laws of this year established his official duties: the "preservation, arrangement and cataloguing of the books belonging to the Library of the College". This position was part-time; the Librarian was required to be present in the Library for an hour before each meeting and an additional hour each week.
A major change in the Library's administration occurred in 1882. At this time, two new positions, "Honorary Librarian" and "Assistant Librarian" were created. The Honorary Librarian served as an "ex officio" member of the Library Committee and was responsible for the Library's funds and employees. The Assistant Librarian, who worked full-time and did not have to be a Fellow of the College, was responsible for the daily administration of the Library. His other duties included acting as secretary of the Library Committee and keeping records of all books purchased or donated to the Library. In the 1914 by-laws, the title of Assistant Librarian was changed to Librarian. Also in 1914, the Librarian became the "Superintendent of the College building". This responsibility was omitted from the 1925 by-laws, and by 1935, the by-laws were again amended to state that the Librarian "shall keep a record of all acquisitions of the Library, with the names of the donors".
A new position, Curator of the Historical Collections of the Library, was added to the staff in 1953. In 1982, the title of"Librarian" was changed to "Director of the Library." In 1990, the responsibilities of the Director of the Library were divided between the Director of the Library for Public Services and the Director of the Library for Historical Services.
In 1997, governance voted to officially make the Library an historical library, deemphasizing modem reference and transferring most of those activities to the Consumer Health Information Center, established in 1995. The Director of the Library was in charge of the historical collections, with Public Services in charge of modem reference. In July 2001 the Director's position became that of College Librarian, with the added title of Director of the Francis C. Wood Institute for the History of Medicine. While the Library continued to acquire and save consumer health material and some other current material, the College Librarian's principle duty was the preservation, promotion, and enhancement of the historical collection.
The collection covers the career of Walton Brooks McDaniel, II (1897-1975), who served as Librarian from 1933-1953, when he became Curator of the Historical Collections. Born August 30, 1897, and named after his uncle, a professor of classical Latin and Greek, McDaniel was a classical scholar, noted for an edition of the works of the poet Catullus. Prior to his arrival at the College, McDaniel earned an undergraduate degree from Harvard (1920) and a Ph.D. in classical literature from New York University (1932), and taught English and the classics at such institutions as the University of Pennsylvania, Brown University, and New York University.
As Librarian, McDaniel engaged in scholarly work related to the College and history of medicine, while becoming increasingly involved in professional activities in the greater library world. He served as editor of the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association (1936), as member of the MLA Executive Committee (1936-1937), and later as president of the MLA (1946). In 1953, McDaniel traveled to London to deliver the keynote address at the first International Congress on Medical Librarianship. Closer to home, McDaniel was influential in the establishment of the Philadelphia Union Catalogue and was active in the Metropolitan Library Council of Philadelphia, of which he was elected president in 1943. In 1946, McDaniel was appointed Honorary Consultant to the US Armed Forces Medical Library.
As a scholar, McDaniel produced over ninety articles on the history of medicine, medical historiography, and the history of the College of Physicians, as well as works concerning libraries and librarianship. He wrote and published Fugitive Leaves (1935-1938, 1956- 1967), an irregularly-appearing publication dedicated to notes and articles about the College's collection. McDaniel also edited Transactions and Studies (1937-1955), the journal of the College that in McDaniel's time covered both current medicine and medical history. In addition, McDaniel served as Secretary of the American Association for the History of Medicine (1944-19.46).
In 1953 the College of Physicians created the position of Curator of the Historical Collections, a position to which McDaniel was appointed in that same year. Relinquishing the position of Librarian to his assistant, Elliot Morse, McDaniel continued his service to the College until his retirement in October 1973. Upon his retirement, he was elected Honorary Associate Fellow of the College. McDaniel died May 23, 1975 of injuries sustained by an automobile.
In addition to the papers of Walton B. McDaniel, the following sources were consulted in the preparation of this biographical sketch:
Bell, Whitfield J., Jr. "W.B. McDaniel 2d (1897-1975)." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 49 (3): 429-431 (Fall 1974).
Holloway, Lisabeth M. "A Bibliographic Salute to W.B. McDaniel, 2d." Transactions and Studies, 41 (3): 171-175 (January 1974).
Morse, Elliott. "Walton Brooks McDaniel, 2d, 1897-1975: A Testimonial." Revised version of a talk presented at the Section on Medical History of the College of Physicians on January 21, 1976.
Rogers, Fred B. "Walton Brooks McDaniel 2d: An Appreciation." Philadelphia Medicine, 71 (7): 292-293 (July 1975).
"Walton B. McDaniel 2d" [obituary]. The Philadelphia Inquirer: 2-C (Sunday, May 25, 1975).
"Walton B. McDaniel, 2d, Former Curator, 77" [obituary]. The Evening Bulletin: 14-A (Saturday, May 24, 1975).
"Walton Brooks McDaniel, 2d, 1897-1975." Journal of the History of Medicine: 392 (October 1975).
The collection contains records from 1954-1973, encompassing McDaniel's tenure as Curator of the College of Physicians' Historical Collection. Unless otherwise noted, the records are arranged by year or group of years, and then alphabetically and chronologically by correspondent. (In most cases where this system is not in place, materials are arranged chronologically.) Records of McDaniel's tenure as Librarian are cataloged separately. There is overlap between the dates of McDaniel's papers as Librarian and his as Curator. Where logically appropriate, series that begin during McDaniel's time as Librarian and extend into his time as Curator are housed with the Librarian materials. Records may be filed under the personal name of the correspondent, an associated organization or institution, or both. Researchers should check under individual and institutional names.
Though it seems probable that the original order of this collection was disturbed prior to processing, the system of arrangement was created in an attempt to stay in keeping with McDaniel's original filing system, of which signs remain.
The collection sheds light on McDaniel as scholar, librarian, colleague, and as a person. In addition, the records reveal much about the College's Library itself, such as types of reference questions received and answered, details of acquisitions, successes and difficulties of daily operation, and relationships with Fellows. The records also provide a window into the library world in a larger sense. Through correspondence with librarians locally, nationally, and internationally, one may observe the library community at work, as they communicated with one another about their own libraries and the greater library and scholarly world.
The majority of this collection consists of correspondence, and is arranged in the following series:
I. Correspondence (1954-1973)
II. American Philosophical Society cataloging grant (1953-1964)
III. American Association for the History of Medicine 38th Annual Meeting (1963-1965)
IV. Miscellaneous (1971-1972)
Upon McDaniel's shift from Librarian to Curator, his correspondence with others included less of the greater library world than it once did, and concerned itself more with reference matters, particular publications, and the like. In this way, the documents reveal much about the workings and daily operations of the Library itself, such as types of reference questions received and answered, successes and difficulties, and relationships with colleagues and Fellows. At times, however, the correspondence still highlights cooperative efforts between local, regional, and national libraries and librarians.
The records are arranged in chronological groups and, where appropriate, alphabetically and chronologically by correspondent. (Documents may be filed under the personal name of the correspondent, an associated organization or institution, or both.) Both McDaniel and some of his correspondents on occasion used light-hearted nicknames or pseudonyms (such as "Rajahs" for Fred Rogers); in cases where such names are used, the records are filed under the given name of the correspondent.
I. Correspondence (1954-1973) The vast majority of the collection consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence, arranged alphabetically by correspondent within a given time frame, depending upon the amount of correspondence and its original arrangement. Correspondents include fellows, other librarians (from local, national, and even some international libraries), scholars, and the general public.
II. American Philosophical Society Cataloguing Grant (1958-1964) In 1958, the College of Physicians applied for and received a grant from the APS for the cataloguing of historical materials. This series includes grant applications, correspondence, receipts, and reports concerning this project.
III. American Association for the History of Medicine Annual Meeting (1963-1965) McDaniel served as the Chair of the Program Committee for the AAHM's 38u1 Annual Meeting, held 29 April-1 May 1965. Other members of the Program Committee included William Beatty, Whitfield Bell, Eric Carlson, John Duffy, and Leonard Willson. This series consists of correspondence, schedules, McDaniel's official communications and committee members' responses to these communications, tentative program schedules, abstracts submitted for consideration and accompanying correspondence, and other documents. Of particular interest may be correspondence regarding the Rath-Berg controversy (publication of a work was being contested due to the author's apparent past Nazi affiliation).
IV. Miscellaneous This series consists miscellaneous records, one folder from the American Literary Manuscripts Survey (19711972) and one folder of undated miscellaneous records.
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