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Theodore Dreiser papers


Held at: University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts [Contact Us]3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6206

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During the Congress on Literature at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, Hamlin Garland expressed America's need for a new kind of literature. Garland called this new literature "veritism" and "local color"—something authentically American rather than derivative of Europe. At the same time, twenty-two-year-old Theodore Dreiser was in Chicago covering the World's Fair as a reporter for the St. Louis Republic. Although Dreiser did not attend the Congress on Literature, he was to play a principal role in the fulfillment of Garland's dream for American literature in the decades that followed.

(Herman) Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) was born in Terre Haute, Indiana on 27 August 1871. He was a sickly child, the ninth in a family of ten surviving children (three older boys had died in infancy). Theodore's mother, Sarah Maria Schänäb, of Czech ancestry, was reared in the Mennonite faith on a farm near Dayton, Ohio. His father, John Paul Dreiser, was a German immigrant, who left Mayen in 1844 at the age of twenty-three to avoid conscription. He eventually traveled to America to follow his trade as a weaver, ending up at a mill in Dayton, Ohio, where he met the then seventeen-year-old Sarah. John Paul Dreiser was a devout Catholic, Sarah Schänäb, somewhat Protestant and decidedly pagan in her approach to the world—she was extremely superstitious and romantic. The couple ran off together and married in 1851, Sarah not quite eighteen, John Paul then twenty-nine. Sarah was immediately disowned by her family, militant anti-Catholics.

The couple settled first in Fort Wayne, Indiana and then in Terre Haute, where John Paul became quite successful in the woolen business. There were six children in the family in 1867 when the Dreisers moved to Sullivan, Indiana and John Paul borrowed significantly in the hopes of becoming an independent wool manufacturer. These hopes were destroyed in 1869 when his factory burned to the ground. John Paul was injured severely by falling timber as he tried to save his dream. By the time he recovered and moved his family back to Terre Haute, the Dreisers were deep in debt, for John Paul insisted on paying back every dollar that he owed. Discouraged to the point of despair, he abandoned his career and became obsessed with religion and the salvation of his family.

When Theodore Dreiser was born in 1871, his family was settled firmly in the depths of poverty. There were eight older siblings: Paul, Marcus Romanus (known as Rome), Mary Frances (Mame), Emma, Theresa, Sylvia, Al, and Claire. Younger brother Ed would follow two years later. Dreiser's father was only sporadically employed. The older children were out of the home, picking up what work they could, mostly getting into trouble. The family had a reputation in Terre Haute for being behind in their bills with wild sons and flirty daughters. Each morning they knelt around the father as he asked for a blessing for the day, and there was a similar blessing each night. Despite these prayers and stern punishments at the hand of John Paul, it was too late. The older boys ran away from home; the older girls were involved in affairs. The Dreiser family was out of control, abetted by Sarah's leniency toward her children.

Young Theodore Dreiser grew up in this environment of uncertainty. He often went to bed hungry. There was no money for coal, and Theodore would go with his older brother Al to pick some up along the tracks of the railroad. His mother took in washing and worked at scrubbing and cleaning. Always sensitive, Theodore was humiliated to wear ragged clothing and to sneak coal from the tracks. He stuttered; he cried easily; he was a homely child, with protruding teeth and a cast in one eye. Thin, pale, bullied by other boys, he spent his days alone for the most part. Yet Dreiser was also intensely curious about life, watching sunrises, observing birds in flight, exploring the Indiana countryside. He hated his father's world of censored joy and authority and loved his mother's romantic dreams. Dreiser realized that his family was poor and that they were looked down upon; he dreamed of having a home like those of the wealthy on Wabash Avenue, of having money and fine clothing.

Within Theodore Dreiser's harsh world of poverty there was always a contrasting element of the fantastic. First it was his mother's world of fancy—the family constantly moved at her whim, for she was always certain that something better was just over the horizon. As he grew older, the world of the wealthy town became his fantasy. Then there was the fantastic success of his oldest brother, Paul Dreiser. Paul had left home, joined a minstrel troupe, and achieved much success with his musical talents. Writing, singing, and performing in minstrel shows, he even changed his name to Paul Dresser, which he felt would be more memorable to his public.

When Theodore was twelve he moved with his mother to Chicago where his older sisters had secured an apartment. Again there was the fantastic contrast of his old life in a small Indiana town to the city, with its size, its activity, and its color. The ways of the city would continue to fascinate Dreiser throughout his life. When the venture in Chicago failed, Theodore's mother moved him to Warsaw, Indiana, near where she had some land that had been left to her by her father.

It was in Warsaw that Theodore first attended a non-Catholic school. Instead of the fear and trepidation of his earlier education, he found encouragement, first in the person of twenty-one-year old May Calvert, his seventh grade teacher. Miss Calvert took an interest in Theodore, encouraging him to use the local library and his imagination. She remained his life-long friend and confidant. At the age of seventeen, in a hardware store in Chicago where Theodore had found work, he met up with a former teacher, Mildred Fielding, now principal of a Chicago high school. Miss Fielding had seen promise in him as well, thought him deserving, and wanted to send him to Indiana University at her own expense. In the fall of 1889 Dreiser arrived at the Bloomington campus.

Dreiser spent only a year at Indiana University. The experience showed him a world of possibilities, but he felt socially outcast and unsuccessful and was not really stimulated by any of his courses. Theodore returned home, now almost nineteen years old, and found a job in a real estate office. He enjoyed some success in this field and gained a bit of confidence. That fall, however, his mother became ill. On 14 November 1890, Theodore came home for lunch to find her in bed. As he helped her sit up, she went limp: Sarah Dreiser died in her son's arms at the age of fifty-seven. Theodore, always his mother's favorite because he was so slight and sensitive, felt alone in the world. The Dreiser family, only held together at this point by Sarah's love for all, fell irreparably apart.

Theodore drifted into one job after another: driver for a laundry; collector for a furniture store. While these jobs provided him with an income, none allowed for the expression of ambition and artistic ability that he felt within. In his memoirs Dreiser stated that it occurred to him at that time that newspaper reporters were men of importance and dignity, who by dint of interviewing the great were perceived their equal. It was now 1892 and Theodore had returned to Chicago, which was preparing for the upcoming World's Fair and the Democratic National Convention. Dreiser was curious enough about these events to write his own news stories about them, finding his to be as good as those published in the papers. In June of 1892—after much determined footwork on his part—Theodore Dreiser landed a job on the Chicago Globe.

Dreiser's intense curiosity about life was well-suited to work as an investigative journalist. In Chicago and later, in 1893 when he went to St. Louis to work for the Globe-Democrat and the Republic, Dreiser became known for his human interest pieces and "on-the-scene" reporting style: his articles were written in a manner that put the reader at the tragedy of a local fire or the action of a public debate.

It was at the Republic in 1893 that Dreiser was given the job of escorting twenty female St. Louis school teachers to the Chicago World's fair and to write about their activities on the journey. One of these was Sara Osborne White, twenty-four and two years older than Dreiser. She came from Montgomery City, seventy-five miles west of St. Louis. Dreiser fell in love with her figure, dark eyes, and thick red hair (it was this last feature which led her friends and family to call her by the nickname "Jug," for her hair was so thick around her face that it was said to resemble a red jug). Dreiser, desiring her and aching for a chance to fulfill his always pressing sexual needs, took little time to propose.

Dreiser, however, was also driven by a desire for fame. His brother Paul showed up in St. Louis, and his talk of New York was alluring. Theodore was ready for a change. A young reporter friend on the Republic told him of a country weekly in his home town of Grand Rapids, Ohio, which could be purchased for very little. Dreiser thought that he could have great success on his own. In 1894, with promises to send for Jug soon, Dreiser boarded a train for Ohio.

He arrived to find that the paper was small, with a subscribership of less than five hundred. The office was a shambles. There wasn't enough to it to even attempt to make a go, Dreiser thought. He moved on to Toledo, where he asked for a job from the city editor of the Toledo Blade, twenty-six year old Arthur Henry. The two men got along quite well, and Henry found a few reporting assignments for Dreiser. Henry was an aspiring poet and novelist; Dreiser was aspiring to be a playwright. The men spent hours in talk about their literary dreams. Unfortunately, no permanent opening materialized at the Blade, and Dreiser moved on to Cleveland to look for work. After doing some feature work for the Leader, he moved to Pittsburgh in the same year, where he immersed himself in research and articles concerning labor disputes that had culminated in the Great Strike of 1892 at Homestead. From there he went to New York and received a job at Pulitzer's paper, The World, which was leading the fight in the yellow journalism war against Hearst's Journal. He covered a streetcar strike in Brooklyn by actually going out and riding the rails during the strike to see angry workers confronting scab drivers. He later incorporated these impressions into his first novel, Sister Carrie.

Dreiser was drawn to the contrasts between the wealthy and the poverty stricken in New York. He quit his job at The World after only a few months, because he wasn't being allowed to produce the type of human interest stories that he thought should be told. He then lived, partly by choice and partly by necessity, on the streets of New York, where he took in the life of the downcast. At last he turned up at the New York offices of Howley, Haviland & Company, the music publishing firm run by his brother Paul and associates. He proposed to the men the idea of selling a magazine of popular songs, stories, and pictures. He would edit the magazine and it would help sell the company's songs. Thus, in 1895 Dreiser became "Editor-Arranger" for Ev'ry Month, "the Woman's Magazine of Literature and Music." In addition to writing his own "Reflections" column for each issue—in which he set forth his philosophies on such varied topics as the possibility of life on Mars, working conditions in the sweat shops, yellow journalism, and the plight of New York's poor—Dreiser also solicited syndicated stories by the better known American writers of his day, such as Stephen Crane and Bret Harte.

After Ev'ry Month turned into a losing venture in 1897, Dreiser freelanced articles for various magazines. He was one of the original contributors to Success magazine, for which he interviewed the successful men of his time: Andrew Carnegie, Marshall Field, Philip D. Armour, Thomas Edison, and Robert Todd Lincoln. As the twentieth century approached, Dreiser wrote articles on the advances of technology, with titles like "The Horseless Age" and "The Harlem River Speedway" for some of the most popular magazines of the day, such as Leslie's, Munsey's, Ainslee's, Metropolitan, Cosmopolitan, and Demorest's. He compiled the first article ever written about Alfred Stieglitz, who seemed to combine in one Dreiser's interest in art and technology.

This writing set him in good straits financially. He now could afford to marry Jug, a marriage that, in spite of second thoughts on his part, he undertook in a very small ceremony in Washington, D.C., on 28 December 1898. The Dreisers took up residence in New York, but in the summer of 1899, at the request of Arthur Henry, made an extended visit to Ohio. Henry thought that it was time for Dreiser to work on his fiction.

Together the two men spent the summer churning out articles and splitting the money that they earned fifty-fifty, thus giving each the time to work on his literary endeavors. It was here that Dreiser began Sister Carrie. At the same time he became interested in the plight of workers in the South. He did a series of special articles for Pearson's Magazine, which included investigations of a "Model Farm" in South Carolina, Delaware's "Blue Laws," and Georgia's "Chain Gangs." All three dealt with society's punishment of those who transgressed, a theme that Dreiser would investigate thoroughly in his novels. In addition, Dreiser wrote six special articles on the inventor Elmer Gates, who had invested the money gained from his inventions on a facility for psychological research: it was called the Elmer Gates Laboratory of Psychology and Psychurgy. Gate's studies of learning, perception, the physiological effects of the emotions, and the will underlay the ways in which Dreiser shaped Hurstwood's actions in Sister Carrie.

Journalism remained a steady source of income for Dreiser throughout his life and supported his literary endeavors—he became a top editor for Butterick's Delineator in 1907, a silent publisher of the Bohemian in 1909, and in the 1930s an editor of The American Spectator. The events that led up to the publication of Sister Carrie in 1900, however, began a new phase in Dreiser's career—that of the heavily-edited novelist. Before the book was published, Dreiser was forced to change all names that could be attached to any existing firms or corporations. All "swearing" was to be removed. Frank Doubleday demanded that the novel have a more romantic title, and on the original contract the work bears the name "The Flesh and the Spirit," with Dreiser's "Sister Carrie" penciled in beside it. Editing was performed even after Dreiser returned the author's proofs to Doubleday, Page & Co. When Frank Doubleday read the final draft (after, by the way, Page had already signed the contract with Dreiser), he pronounced the book "immoral" and "badly written" and wanted to back out of its publication. Dreiser held Doubleday, Page to its word, however, and Sister Carrie was printed; but only 1,000 copies rolled off the presses, and 450 of these remained unbound. It was not listed in the Doubleday, Page catalogue. The firm refused to advertise the work in any way. A London edition of Sister Carrie (published in 1901), however, did well and was favorably reviewed. The London Daily Mail said: "At last a really strong novel has come from America."

Dreiser would spend his entire literary career struggling with editors, publishers, and various political agencies, all of whom desired to make his works "suitable for the public." Although Dreiser began his second novel, Jennie Gerhardt (1911), upon completion of Sister Carrie, his intense dissatisfaction with the changes and complaints that the publishers had made, combined with the treatment that Sister Carrie was receiving, caused him to lose his health and delayed completion of Jennie Gerhardt for nearly ten years. In 1916 Dreiser, along with H. L. Mencken, fought against the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice when its president, John Sumner, forced withdrawal of The "Genius" (published in 1915) from bookstore shelves. The fight dragged on through 1918, and The "Genius" remained in storerooms until 1923, when it was re-issued by Horace Liveright.

In 1927 Liveright was to become involved in Dreiser's biggest battle for freedom of literary expression, when Dreiser's An American Tragedy (1925), the story of the Chester Gillette-Grace Brown murder case, was banned in Boston. Clarence Darrow was a witness for the defense. The case lingered in the courts, at great expense to both Dreiser and the Liveright firm.

Between beginning the writing of The "Genius" and publishing An American Tragedy, Dreiser was prolific. He published the first two novels in his Cowperwood trilogy, The Financier (1912) and The Titan (1914); a book of travel articles entitled A Traveler At Forty (1913); a collection of plays, Plays of the Natural and Supernatu ral (1916); and a travelogue of his experiences on a car trip through his home state of Indiana, A Hoosier Holiday (1916). These were followed with Free and Other Stories in 1918; Twelve Men in 1919; The Hand of the Potter (a Tragedy in Four Acts) also in 1919; Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub in 1920; A Book About Myself, 1922; and The Color of A Great City in 1923.

In the meantime, Dreiser was beginning a third phase in his career, champion of freedom in all aspects of life. He made his first trip to Europe in 1912, and in London he picked up a prostitute and cross-examined her about life. He visited the House of Commons and was sickened by the slums of the East End. This experience, combined with a seeming inferiority complex on his part at the self-assurance apparently inborn in the British caused Dreiser to developed a life-long hatred of the British and may have had something to do with his sympathy for Germany during World War I. Back home in the United States he tried to organize a society to subsidize art and championed the causes of oppressed artists like himself.

After the publication of An American Tragedy, Dreiser was more highly sought after by political organizations than before. In 1926, while visiting Europe, he commented on the events occurring in Germany: "Can one indict an entire people?" The answer, he felt, was yes. In 1927 Dreiser was invited to the U.S.S.R. by the Soviet Government. The Soviets thought that Dreiser's opinion of their nation would have weight in America and that he would be favorable to their system of government (Dreiser's books sold well in the Soviet Union). During the visit Dreiser met with Soviet heads of state, Russian literary critics, movie directors, and even Bill Haywood, former American labor leader. Dreiser kept extensive journals of the trip. He approved of the divorce of religion from the state, praised new schools and hospitals, but was repelled by the condition of hundreds of stray children scattered about the country. In 1928 Dreiser visited London, where he met with Winston Churchill, with whom he discussed Russia's social and military importance. He also took time to criticize the working conditions of mill workers in England.

Dreiser escalated these political involvements throughout his life. He helped bring former Hungarian premier Count Michael Károly to the United States after the Communist takeover in 1930. During the 1930s he addressed protest rallies on behalf of Tom Mooney, whom he visited in San Quentin, where Mooney was serving a term for his alleged participation in a bombing incident in San Francisco. Dreiser met with Sir Rabindranath Tagore in 1930 to discuss the success of the Soviet government and the hopes of India. In 1931 Dreiser cooperated with the International Labor Defense Organization and took an active part in the social reform program of the American Writers' League, of which he would later become president.

In 1931, as chairman of the National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners, Dreiser organized a special committee to infiltrate Kentucky's Harlan coal mines to investigate allegations of crimes and abuses against striking miners. Dreiser's life was threatened for calling attention to the matter. Dreiser, John Dos Passos, and others on the "Dreiser Committee," as it was called, were indicted by the Bell County Grand Jury for criminal syndicalism, and a warrant was issued for Dreiser's arres t. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor of New York at the time, said he would grant Dreiser an open hearing, and John W. Davis agreed to defend the Committee. Due to widespread publicity and public sentiment, however, all formal charges against Dreiser and the Committee were dropped.

Dreiser became even more involved with social reform after this incident. In 1932 he met with members of the Communist Party in the United States. Dreiser criticized the U. S. Communist Party for being too disorganized. That year he was invited to write for a new literary magazine that would be free of advertising, the American Spectator. Dreiser became and remained associate editor of the paper until other editors agreed to accept advertising, at which point he resig ned. In 1937 Dreiser attended an international peace conference in Paris, because he was interested in the outcome of the Spanish Civil War. When he returned from Europe, he visited with President Roosevelt to discuss the problem and to try to influence him to send aid to Spain. In 1939 Dreiser again traveled to Washington, D.C. and to New York to lecture for the Committee for Soviet Friendship and American Peace Mobilization. He published pamphlets at his own expense and radio addresses. He publishe d America Is Worth Saving, a work concerning economics and intended to convince Americans to avoid involvement in World War II. In 1945, just before his death, Dreiser joined the Communist Party to signify his protest again st America's involvement in the war.

During these years, Dreiser was still publishing—articles, poems, pamphlets, leaflets, and novels. In 1926 he brought out an edition of poetry, Moods: Cadenced and Declaimed. Chains followed in 1927, a book of short stories and "lesser novels." Other works include: Dreiser Looks at Russia (1928); The Carnegie Works at Pittsburgh (1929); A Gallery of Women (1929); My City (1929); Fine Furniture (1930); Dawn (1931); Tragic America (1931); and America Is Worth Saving (19 41). In addition, Dreiser was working on several things at the time of his death, some of which were published posthumously: The Bulwark (1946); The Stoic (1947); and a philosophical and scie ntific treatise that would later be edited and published by Marguerite Tjader and John J. McAleer and titled Notes on Life (1974).

There were many sides to Theodore Dreiser, beyond his literary and political efforts. He was greatly interested in scientific research and development; he collected a great many books and much information on the latest scientific concerns. In 1928 he met Jacques Loeb of the Rockefeller Institute and visited the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Later visits to the Mt. Wilson Observatory in California and the California Institute of Technology would impress him greatly. He had a longstanding correspondence with Dr. A. A. Brill, psychologist, who was largely responsible for introducing Jungian and Freudian analysis to New York. He also championed the works of Charles Fort, a "free-thinker" who was determined to establish that science was "unscientific" and that his own vision of the universe as a place where "anything could happen and did" (Swanberg, 224) was the correct one. Dreiser was particularly fascinated with genetics, which he felt explored the true "mysteries of life." In 1933, he attended the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, specifically with the intent of working on a number of scientific essays, which he continued to compile over his lifetime (and which would later find their way into Notes On Life).

Another area of special interest for Dreiser was philosophy, a subject that he explored in great detail and about which he collected and wrote extensively. His tastes ranged from Spencer to Loeb and from Social Darwinism to Marxism. His published and unpublished writings indicate that Dreiser drew heavily on such philosophers and philosophies to confirm his own views of the nature of man and life.

No biography of Theodore Dreiser would be complete, however, if it did not touch upon his personal life: as one friend put it, it is hard to understand how Dreiser could be so concerned about humanity and at the same time so utterly cruel to an individual human being. His marriage to Sara Osborne White was on shaky ground from the start: he never seemed able to devote himself to one woman. As Sara herself put it: "All his life [Theo] has had an uncontrollable urge when near a woman to lay his hand upon her and stroke her or otherwise come into contact with her" (Swanberg, 137). The two separated in 1910, with Sara returning to Missouri for a time (she would later move to New York on her own) and Dreiser moving on to other women. In 1919, Helen Patges Richardson, a second cousin to Dreiser (her grandmother and Dreiser's mother were sisters), showed up at his doorstep, making the long journey from her home state of Oregon to meet her New York cousins. She would become Dreiser's companion for the rest of his life; they eventually married in 1944. Their relationship was stormy at best: Dreiser never changing his ways with regard to other women, Helen persisting—perhaps beyond all reason—in her devotion to his genius. As she phrased it: "He expected his complete freedom, in which he could indulge to the fullest, at the same time expecting my undivided devotion to him" (Swanberg, 290). In November 1951 Helen had the first of several strokes that would eventually incapacitate her; she moved to Oregon to live with her sister, Myrtle Butcher, and died in 1955.

In addition to his infidelities with regard to women, Dreiser's professional relationships were periodically marred by scandal. He was in the habit of lifting material directly from sources and including it, for the most part, unchanged in his works. Many readers of An American Tragedy, for example, who lived in the Herkimer County area (where the Chester Gillete-Grace Brown incident had occurred), wrote to Dreiser concerned that his book contained sentences lifted directly from court documents or local newspapers. In 1926 it was announced by a knowing reader that Dreiser's poem "The Beautiful," published in the October issue of Vanity Fair, was a plagiarism of Sherwood Anderson's poem "Tandy." Since Dreiser and Anderson were friends, the incident blew over rather quickly.

Such was not the case, however, in 1928, when Dorothy Thompson accused Dreiser of plagiarizing her serialized newspaper articles regarding her trip to Russia (she and Dreiser had been there together) in his book Dreiser Looks At Russia (Ms. Thompson had published these articles in her own collected work, The New Russia, two months prior to Dreiser's publication). Ms. Thompson filed suit against Dreiser, and the press took Dreiser to task on this and earlier cribs. Although Dorothy Thompson eventually dropped her suit, it colored the opinion of some of Dreiser's colleagues towards his works. It also led to another ugly incident in 1931, when at a dinner at the Metropolitan Club honoring visiting Russian novelist, Boris Pilnyak, Sinclair Lewis (Dorothy Thompson's husband and at that year's winner of the Nobel Prize in literature) stood up to speak to the gathered literary notables and, after stating his pleasure at meeting Mr. Pilnyak, added: "But I do not care to speak in the presence of one man who has plagiarized 3,000 words from my wife's book on Russia" (Swanberg, 372). At the end of the reception that followed, Dreiser walked over to Lewis and demanded explanation. Lewis repeated his accusation, at which point, Dreiser slapped his face. Lewis, undaunted, repeated the accusation a third time and received a second slap. Again, the incident was widely publicized in the papers and fueled an aversion on the part of many for Dreiser's private self.

Yet despite his personal and public scandals, Dreiser's achievements in establishing a truly American literature and his one-man crusade for social justice set standards for those of his time and those who would follow. Sherwood Anderson, John Dos Pas sos, James T. Farrell, Edgar Lee Masters, H. L. Mencken, Upton Sinclair—these and many others— acknowledged publicly or privately a debt owed to the example of Dreiser. In a final tribute to Dreiser, upon his death in 1945, H. L. Mencken wrote:

‥ no other American of his generation left so wide and handsome a mark upon the national letters. American writing, before and after his time, differed almost as much as biology before and after Darwin. He was a man of large origi nality, of profound feeling, and of unshakeable courage. All of us who write are better off because he lived, worked and hoped. (Swanberg, 527)

The Theodore Dreiser collection at the University of Pennsylvania Library is the principal repository for books and documents concerning Dreiser's personal and literary life. The Collection at large includes Dreiser's own library and comprehensive holdings in both American and foreign editions of his writings, as well as secondary works. At the heart of the Collection, however, are the Theodore Dreiser Papers. They comprise 503 boxes and include correspondence; manuscripts of published and unpublished writings; notes; diaries; journals edited by Dreiser; biographical material; memorabilia, including scrapbooks, photographs, postcards, promotional material, art, and personal possessions; financial and legal records; clippings covering Dreiser's literary life, beginning with his career as a newspaper reporter in the 1890s; and microfilms of material housed in this and other collections. Also contained in the Papers are correspondence, works, and memorabilia of Dreiser's brother, Paul Dresser; his second wife, Helen Patges (Richardson) Dreiser; and his niece, Vera Dreiser Scott. Finally, the Papers include works of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry that were sent to Dreiser, as well as works that were written about him. Although the Papers contain documents dated as early as 1858 and as late as 1982, the bulk of the materials falls between the years 1897 and 1955.

Dreiser's initial bequest of materials to the University of Pennsylvania occurred in 1942; shipments continued until 1955, the last following Helen Dreiser's death. Gifts and purchases have enriched Penn's Dreiser collection, including the Papers, to such an extent that little of significance regarding Dreiser's life and work is unavailable to the researcher working at Penn.

It is no accident that the University of Pennsylvania became the home for Theodore Dreiser's papers. Historically, the study of American literature was undervalued by English literature departments, which often exhibited a provincial subservience to English letters.[1] At the University of Pennsylvania, however, pioneers like Arthur Hobson Quinn began teaching courses in the American novel in 1912 and in American drama in 1917. Dr. Quinn believed that one reason for the neglect of American writing in colleges was that "the literature had been approached as though it were in a vacuum, divorced from unique historical and economic conditions which had produced it."[2] Emphasizing the necessity for an historical approach to the subject, he was instrumental in the adoption in 1939 of a curriculum in American studies by the graduate school of the University of Pennsylvania and in 1942 by the undergraduate school.

Other Penn faculty, such as E. Sculley Bradley and Robert Spiller, shared Dr. Quinn's devotion to and assessment of American studies. They actively sought to acquire the research materials that they deemed essential to an historical approach. In the late 1930s, Robert Elias, a graduate student in the English Department at Penn, sought out Dreiser in order to use Dreiser's papers for his doctoral dissertation. Penn faculty then approached Dreiser about depositing his collection with the University. Dreiser was aware of his place in the evolution of American literature and of the value of his papers to scholars and collectors. His first literary bequest was the manuscript of Sister Carrie, which was a gift to his frien d H. L. Mencken. Dreiser and Mencken often discussed the final disposition of their papers and agreed that settling on one institution for an entire collection was better than dividing it among several.

Unfortunately, during periods of financial insecurity throughout his lifetime, Dreiser offered various pieces of his literary legacy to collectors or auctioneers in return for ready cash. Some of the manuscripts that were sold have found their way back to his own collection at Penn through donations or purchases, but writings not accounted for here or in other collections are presumed to be in private hands or lost. It is unlikely that Dreiser himself destroyed them, although others close to him may have done so to protect their privacy. He blamed his first wife, Sara White Dreiser, for the destruction of the first manuscript of The "Genius" and it is known that she and her relatives destroyed some of his letters to her and bowdlerized others that are held by the University of Indiana.

Although the University of Pennsylvania has the largest and most comprehensive collection of Dreiser's papers, there are some gaps in its coverage. Over the years, Penn has acquired photocopies and microfilms of some holdings from other collections, w hich are mentioned either in the container list or in an appendix. A study of the series description and the container list confirms that, with few exceptions, even those writing projects for which gaps exist are represented by enough material to give the researcher a sense of Dreiser's plan for the work and its evolution as he worked it out from manuscript to publication. An annotated list of institutions with significant holdings on Dreiser can be found in Theodore Dreiser: A Primary Bibliography and Reference Guide (2nd ed.), by Donald Pizer, Richard W. Dowell, and Frederic E. Rusch (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1991).

Dreiser was a prolific writer and correspondent and one who saved almost everything he wrote, from the initial notes for a piece of writing to the discarded pages from revised manuscripts. In addition to preserving his manuscripts, Dreiser saved incom ing personal and business correspondence and made carbons of outgoing correspondence, especially after he began to have regular secretarial help in the 1920s. He was a compulsive rewriter of his own work and enlisted the aid of friends, associates, and p rofessional editors in the work of revision. After a manuscript was transformed into a typescript, carbons of it were often circulated among his associates for their editorial suggestions. Many of these copies, in addition to the drafts Dreiser revised himself, are housed in this collection, so it is possible to determine some of the influences on Dreiser's work and to better understand the way Dreiser carried out the process of writing.

Correspondence is arranged alphabetically by correspondent and then chronologically within each correspondent's file. Items of incoming and outgoing correspondence are interfiled. Care should be taken by researchers not to remove or misplace the white interleaving sheets found in many folders; this paper is acting as a barrier to keep carbons of outgoing correspondence from acid-staining original letters housed next to them.

Unidentified correspondence is housed immediately after the alphabetical correspondence files. Following the "Unidentified Correspondence" are two additional series of correspondence, one entitled "Miscellaneous Correspondence," the other "Legal Matters.""Miscellaneous Correspondence" comprises two case files, one of materials relating to or collected by Estelle Kubitz Williams, the other of correspondence relating to exhibitions or the collecting of Dreiser's works by the Los Angeles Public Library . "Legal Matters" consists of six distinct files pertaining to various legal matters involving Dreiser. The governing criteria for separating correspondence from the alphabetical correspondence file was whether the material in a file was collected primarily by Theodore or Helen Dreiser or by someone else. This rule explains why two other series, entitled "Paul Dresser Materials" and "Vera Dreiser Correspondence" have been separated from the alphabetical correspondence files and housed later in the coll ection under the general title "Family Members." (It should be noted that, while "Paul Dresser Materials" contains a large addition of materials from outside sources, many items in it were indeed collected by Theodore and Helen Dreiser; this file became so large, however, and contained so much material that was not correspondence that the decision was made to separate it from the main body of correspondence.)

In organizing the manuscripts in this collection, consideration was given to Dreiser's habits of writing, his own presumed plan or arrangement of his papers, the scope of Penn's actual holdings, and the needs of researchers. The fact that the bulk of this collection has been at the University of Pennsylvania since the late 1940s and was opened to scholars before being completely processed makes Dreiser's own organizational schema difficult to determine in 1990. It is known that even before his papers were shipped to the University of Pennsylvania they were reordered several times by his wife or assistants. It is also known that during the preliminary sorting at Penn related items that had arrived clipped together were separated, and no record was ke pt of their original arrangement. Over the years users of the collection have rearranged files and papers to suit the purposes of their own research and have neglected to restore what they moved to its original order. Most unfortunately, some papers that arrived with the collection in the 1940s have disappeared.

How did Dreiser's habits of research and writing influence the final arrangement of the papers? It is important to remember that he was an extremely productive writer in many genres: novels, essays, short stories, poetry, play scripts, and screenplay s. Because his funds were often low, he wanted to recycle his publications so that they generated more than one income. For example, he wrote novel-length works but hoped to sell to the periodicals short pieces adapted from these longer works and thus t o collect a book royalty as well as a payment for the extracted piece. He followed this process in reverse: manuscripts originally sold and published as essays, poems, or short stories were often combined later and sold as book-length units. Some books , such as An American Tragedy, were adapted into play scripts and motion picture screenplays and thus could be marketed again. How to order these related writings both to preserve their integrity as particular genres and to show their relationship to one another was an important consideration in processing Dreiser's papers.

Because many of Dreiser's essays, short stories, poems, and play scripts were published both individually in periodicals and later as parts of collections of similar works, they could have been filed with others of the same genre or collected under the book title Dreiser eventually chose for them. Researchers should check the container list under TD Writings: Books and the appendices for other relevant genres because sometimes a piece of writing, or versions of it, will be found in both locations. For example, the stories that comprise Free and Other Stories and Chains are filed alphabetically in TD Writings: Short Stories because the University of Pennsylvania Dreiser Papers lacks the "book manuscript" for these stories that is known to have existed at one time. By contrast, Penn does have manuscripts, typescripts, and typesetting copy for the studies that were published in A Gallery of Women, and Dreiser's lists and correspondence indicate that he wanted these studies to be published as a unit even though he published some of them first in periodicals. Thus, the researcher will find some of these essays in two places: tearsheets from the periodical publication of the essay filed alphabetically in TD Writings: Essays and manuscripts and typescript s of the essays labeled by Dreiser A Gallery of Women housed under that title in TD Writings: Books.

In addition to recycling published works into other publications, Dreiser sometimes used the same title for writings in two different genres. For example, an essay and a short story are both entitled "Kismet"; "The Factory" is the title for both an es say and a poem; "Credo" is an essay but "The Credo" is a short story; three poems bear the title "Love" and two "Life." Using the same story line, Dreiser wrote a playscript and a screenplay called "The Choice." He wrote a playscript "Solution" based on his short story of the same title. The appendices for all the genres should be consulted for titles so that the researcher does not overlook any relevant adaptations.

The autobiographical character of much of Dreiser's writing occasionally makes the distinction between an essay and a short story a problematic one. Unless Dreiser specified directly, his intent is impossible to recover at this point because the polic y followed for distinguishing between the two when the collection underwent its preliminary sorting in the 1940s is unknown. With the exception of a few obvious misfilings, the stories and essays have been left in their pre-1990 processing genre. Resear chers should check both TD Writings: Essays and TD Writings: Short Stories for titles.

Dreiser's work habits and filing practices also meant that some flexibility was required in defining authorship of the papers in this collection. Sometimes Dreiser developed an idea or a theme for a series of articles, whereupon he would contact lesser-known writers and ask them to compose essays on this theme, with the understanding that he would edit and perhaps rewrite the essays and have the series published under his name. Occasionally the original writer of these pieces cannot be determined bec ause Dreiser had the essay retyped under his name before submitting it to a publisher. Because Dreiser was the author of the idea for the series, as well as the author of one or more of the essays, all manuscripts in the series are housed in TD Writings: Essays under the name of the series, with the name of the actual author of the essay (if known) noted on the folder. The same policy was followed for other works inspired by Dreiser's ideas or writing s.

Dreiser's own identifying terminology is used to describe the contents of a folder unless it is clearly incorrect. Most of the manuscript material from the Dreisers was wrapped in brown paper or manila envelopes with a notation by Dreiser or Helen Dre iser describing the contents. Unfortunately, when the papers arrived at Penn and were rehoused in the preliminary sort, some sources of identification were not documented on the folders. Sources of identification that are questionable for any reason are so indicated on the folders. If the item was not identified originally or was identified incorrectly, a descriptive term has been supplied.

In processing the Theodore Dreiser Papers, extensive use was made of the biographies Dreiser (1965), by W. A. Swanberg, and the two-volume study Theodore Dreiser: At the Gates of the City, 1871-1907 (1986) and Theodore Dreiser: An American Journey, 1908-1945 (1990), by Richard Lingeman; the biographical study Forgotten Frontiers: Dreiser and the Land of the Free (1932), by Dorothy Dudley; the memoirs My Life with Dreiser, by Helen Dreiser (1951), Theodore Dreiser: A New Dimension, by Marguerite Tjader (1965), and My Uncle Theodore, by Vera Dreiser with Brett Howard (1976); the collections Letters of Theodore Dreiser: A Selection (3 vols.), edited by Robert H. Elias (1959), Dreiser-Mencken Letters: The Correspondence of Theodore Dreiser & H. L. Mencken 1907-1945 (2 vols.), edited by Thomas P. Riggio (1986), and Theodore Dreiser: American Diaries 1902-1926, edited by Thomas P. Riggio (1982); and the reference work Theodore Dreiser: A Primary Bibliography and Reference Guide (2nd ed.), by Donald Pizer, Richard W. Dowell, and Frederic E. Rusch (1991). The last-mentioned work comprises not only a primary bibliography of the works of Theodore Dreiser, but also an annotated bibliography of writings about Dreiser from 1900 to 1989.


[1] In American Literature and the Academy Kermit Vanderbilt reviews in depth "the embattled campaign to build respect for America's authors and create standards of excellence in the study and teaching of our own literature." His book was published in 1986 by the University of Pennsylvania Press.

[2] Neda M. Westlake, "Arthur Hobson Quinn, Son of Pennsylvania," The University of Mississippi Studies in English, Volume 3, 1982, p. 15.

Gift of Theodore and Helen Dreiser with additional donations from Myrtle Butcher; Louise Campbell; Harold J. Dies; Ralph Fabri; Mrs. William White Gleason [Dreiser-E. H. Smith correspondence]; Hazel Mack Godwin; Paul D. Gormley; Marguerite Tjader Harris; R. Sturgis Ingersoll [manuscript for Jennie Gerhardt]; Los Angeles Public Library; F. O. Matthiessen; Vera Dreiser Scott; Lorna D. Smith; Robert Spiller [galleys for The Bulwark]; and Estelle Kubitz Williams plus purchased additions, 1942-1991.

For a complete listing of correspondents, do the following title search in Franklin: Theodore Dreiser Papers

University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Finding Aid Author
Julie A. Reahard and Lee Ann Draud
Finding Aid Date
The processing of the Theodore Dreiser Papers and the preparation of this register were made possible in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and by the financial support of the Walter J. Miller Trust
Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may exist. For most library holdings, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania do not hold copyright. It is the responsibility of the requester to seek permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce material from the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Collection Inventory

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Series Description

This first extensive series contains letters written to and from Theodore and Helen Dreiser, arranged alphabetically by correspondent, of which there are approximately 6,000. Within each correspondence file, letters are arranged chronologically. Inco ming and outgoing correspondence has been interfiled. The researcher should keep in mind that letters may have crossed in the mail, especially in the case of foreign correspondence; a given letter may not have been received by Dreiser or his correspondent when one of a later date was sent. At the end of the alphabetical correspondence files is the unidentified correspondence, arranged in chronological order where possible.

The majority of Dreiser's correspondence is work-related, pertaining to the various projects that he was working on at any given time. Still, the list of names of those having significant personal correspondence with Dreiser reads like a Who's Who among writers, artists, publishers, social critics, and notables of his time, for example, Sherwood Anderson, Harry Elmer Barnes, Jerome Blum, Franklin Booth, A. A. Brill, Pearl Buck, Bruce Crawford, Floyd Dell, Ben Dodge, John Dos Passos, Angna Enters, Whar ton Esherick, Ralph Fabri, James T. Farrell, Ford Madox Ford, Charles Fort, Waldo Frank, Hutchins Hapgood, Dorothy Dudley Harvey, Ripley Hitchcock, B. W. Huebsch, Otto Kyllmann, William C. Lengel, Horace Liveright, Edgar Lee Masters, H. L. Mencken, Frank Norris, John Cowper and Llewelyn Powys, Grant Richards, Kathryn D. Sayre, Hans Stengel, George Sterling, Dorothy Thompson, Carl Van Vechten, and Charles Yost.

Helen Dreiser's correspondence appears in the files with Theodore Dreiser's, because she often served as principal contact for Dreiser's friends and business associates: Dreiser was often either ill or busy attempting to complete book projects (especially in the later years of his life, 1943 to 1945). While the larger correspondence files relating to Dreiser's brother, Paul Dresser, and his niece, Vera Dreiser, have been moved to another section of the Papers, the alphabetical correspondence series does contain family correspondence and some significant correspondence with personal friends of Dreiser, such as that with his teacher, May Calvert Baker, and friends Lillian Rosedale Goodman and Kirah Markham.

The Department of Special Collections has obtained some photocopies of Dreiser letters housed in other repositories: these are filed just as if they were original documents. All such photocopies are so marked. Receipts, canceled checks, and income tax returns are housed as series filed later in the papers. While some royalty statements do reside in the alphabetical correspondence section (when they came enclosed in letters from various publishing firms), the bulk is housed in the series titled "Financial Records."

A & C Black, Ltd. - Alleman, Marta.
Box 1 Folder 1-77
Allen, Ben - American Federation of Labor (1929-1931 July 14).
Box 2 Folder 78-128
American Federation of Labor (1931 July 17-23) - American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers.
Box 3 Folder 129-173
American Spectator - Anderson, Sherwood.
Box 4 Folder 174-220
Andrea, Leonardo - Austrian, Delia.
Box 5 Folder 221-314
Author's and Writer's Who's Who - Baker & Taylor Co.
Box 6 Folder 315-364
Balch, Jean Allen - Beard, Lina.
Box 7 Folder 365-454
Beck, Clyde - Bicknell, George.
Box 8 Folder 455-537
Big Brothers of America - Bland, H. Raymond.
Box 9 Folder 538-568
Blau, Perlman & Polakoff - Boni & Liveright (1917-1921).
Box 10 Folder 569-616
Boni & Liveright, 1922-1933.
Box 11 Folder 617-627
Boni & Liveright (1934-1938) - Bowdoin College.
Box 12 Folder 628-670
Bowen, Croswell - Brandt & Brandt.
Box 13 Folder 671-719
Brandt Theatres - Brodsky, Nauda Auslien.
Box 14 Folder 720-770
Brody, Paul A. - Burns, Lee.
Box 15 Folder 771-864
Burnside, L. Brooks - Campbell, Louise (1917-1929).
Box 16 Folder 865-920
Campbell, Louise, 1930-1963, undated.
Box 17 Folder 921-930
Campbell, Mary - Chadwick Productions.
Box 18 Folder 931-1005
Chalian, Edward - Church Management: Journal of Parish Administration.
Box 19 Folder 1006-1076
Churchill, Judith Chase - Cluett, Peabody & Co.
Box 20 Folder 1077-1133
Coakley, Elizabeth - Commonwealth College (Mena, Ark.).
Box 21 Folder 1134-1197
Communist Party of the United States of America - Constable & Company (1929-1934).
Box 22 Folder 1198-1224
Constable & Company (1935-1947) - Cotton, Mother Emma.
Box 23 Folder 1225-1273
Coulter, Ernest Kent - The Crusaders.
Box 24 Folder 1274-1331
Crutcher, Ernest - Curtis Brown, Ltd. (1907-1933).
Box 25 Folder 1332-1364
Curtis Brown, Ltd. (1934-1940) - Davidson, Jo.
Box 26 Folder 1365-1413
Davies, Marion - Delteil, Caroline Dudley.
Box 27 Folder 1414-1469
DeMille, Cecil B. - Dimock & Fink Company.
Box 28 Folder 1470-1529
Dinamov, Sergei - Doty, Douglas Zabriskie.
Box 29 Folder 1530-1569
Doubleday, Doran & Company - Dreier, Thomas.
Box 30 Folder 1570-1601
Dreiser, Albert J. - Dreiser, Helen Patges.
Box 31 Folder 1602-1617
Dreiser, Henry - Dyer, Francis John.
Box 32 Folder 1618-1690
E. P. Dutton - Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Ind.
Box 33 Folder 1691-1772
Emergency Committee for Southern Political Prisoners - Ettelson, Samuel A.
Box 34 Folder 1773-1831
Ettinge, James A. - Fabri, Ralph (1929-1933).
Box 35 Folder 1832-1870
Fabri, Ralph, 1934-1943.
Box 36 Folder 1871-1880
Fabri, Ralph (1944-1955) - Fasola, F. B.
Box 37 Folder 1881-1915
Fassett, Lillian - Fischl, George.
Box 38 Folder 1916-1978
Fischler, Joseph - Ford Hall Forum (Boston, Mass.).
Box 39 Folder 1979-2032
Foreign Policy Association - Freedman, May Brandstone.
Box 40 Folder 2033-2092
Freeman, Helen - Geisel, K.
Box 41 Folder 2093-2182
Gelfand, Hyman A. - Goldberg, Isaac.
Box 42 Folder 2183-2273
Golden, John - Graham, Marcus.
Box 43 Folder 2274-2336
Grand Army of the Republic - Gunther, Ferdinand.
Box 44 Folder 2337-2426
Guthrie, William Norman - Hampshire County Progressive Club.
Box 45 Folder 2427-2487
Hampton, David B. - Harper & Brothers (1899-1920).
Box 46 Folder 2488-2537
Harper & Brothers (1921-1946) - Hartwell Stafford, Publisher.
Box 47 Folder 2538-2584
Hartwick, Harry - Hedrick, T. K. (Tubman K.).
Box 48 Folder 2585-2638
Heilbrunn, L. V. (Lewis Victor) - Herdan, Gerald S.
Box 49 Folder 2639-2682
Hergesheimer, Joseph - Hoffmann, W.
Box 50 Folder 2683-2761
Hofschulte, Frank - Howe, L. V.
Box 51 Folder 2762-2843
Howell, E. L. - Hume, Cameron & Paseltiner (1920-1933).
Box 52 Folder 2844-2880
Hume, Cameron & Pasteltiner (1934-1942) - Ilhardt, Emil, Mrs.
Box 53 Folder 2881-2928
Illes, Bela - International League of Leavers of Footprints in the Sands of Time.
Box 54 Folder 2929-2975
International Literary Bureau - Isbey, H. E. F.
Box 55 Folder 2976-3000
Isham, Frederic Stewart - Jenkins, William W.
Box 56 Folder 3001-3057
Jenks, George C. - Johns Hopkins University.
Box 57 Folder 3058-3098
Johnson, A. D. - Juggler(Notre Dame, Ind.).
Box 58 Folder 3099-3173
Jules C. Goldstone Agency - Kelley, F. F.
Box 59 Folder 3174-3250
Kelly, Fred C. (Fred Charters) - Kerpel, Eugen (1936).
Box 60 Folder 3251-3286
Kerpel, Eugen (1937-1941) - The Knoxville News-Sentinel.
Box 61 Folder 3287-3353
Knudsen, Paol - Labor Research Association (U.S.).
Box 62 Folder 3354-3420
Labor Temple School (New York, N.Y.) - Larrimer, Mary.
Box 63 Folder 3421-3469
Larsh, Theodora - Lemon, Willis S.
Box 64 Folder 3470-3550
Lengel, William C., 1910-1957.
Box 65 Folder 3551-3562
Lenitz, Josephine H. - Liesee, Edith M.
Box 66 Folder 3563-3640
Life(New York, N.Y.) - Livraria Garnier.
Box 67 Folder 3641-3690
Llona, Victor - Lyons & Carnahan.
Box 68 Folder 3691-3787
M. Witmark & Sons - McCoy, Esther (1924-1933).
Box 69 Folder 3788-3824
McCoy, Esther (1934-1977) - Mack, Hazel (1936-1944, April).
Box 70 Folder 3825-3869
Mack, Hazel (1944 May-1946) - Malmin, Lucius J. M.
Box 71 Folder 3870-3939
Management Ernest Briggs (Firm) - Mason, Walt.
Box 72 Folder 3940-4006
Masseck, C. J. - Masters, Edgar Lee.
Box 73 Folder 4007-4024
Masters, Marcia Lee - Meltzer, E., Mrs.
Box 74 Folder 4025-4081
Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1907-1917.
Box 75 Folder 4082-4093
Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1918-1935.
Box 76 Folder 4094-4105
Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1936-1954, undated.
Box 77 Folder 4106-4117
Mendelson, Edna G. - Milwaukee Writers Union.
Box 78 Folder 4118-4202
Mind, Inc. - Monahan, Yvette.
Box 79 Folder 4203-4239
Monatshefte für deutschen Unterricht - Motuby, Betty.
Box 80 Folder 4240-4303
Mount, Richard - National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners (1931).
Box 81 Folder 4304-4379
National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners (1932-1937) - Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co.
Box 82 Folder 4380-4439
Nesbit, Wilbur D. - New York Library Association.
Box 83 Folder 4440-4503
New York Mirror(New York, N.Y.) - Norstedts tryckeri.
Box 84 Folder 4504-4567
The North American - 130 Washington Place West Holding Corp.
Box 85 Folder 4568-4654
O'Neil, James - Oxford University Press.
Box 86 Folder 4655-4712
P.E.N. Czechoslovakia - Patterson, William Morrison.
Box 87 Folder 4713-4780
Pauker, Edmond - Pennsylvania Railroad.
Box 88 Folder 4781-4825
People's Forum of Philadelphia - Piwonka, Hubert.
Box 89 Folder 4826-4910
Plantin Press - Powys, John Cowper.
Box 90 Folder 4911-4971
Powys, Llewelyn - Quintanilla, Luis.
Box 91 Folder 4972-5062
R - Revue Internationale des Questions Politiques Diplomatiques et Economiques.
Box 92 Folder 5063-5160
Rey, John B. - Roberts, William.
Box 93 Folder 5161-5236
Robertson, John Wooster - Rossman, Carl.
Box 94 Folder 5237-5325
The Rotarian - Salzman, Maurice.
Box 95 Folder 5326-5421
Sampson, Emma - Schilling, Theodore.
Box 96 Folder 5422-5486
Schindler, H. - Seldes, George.
Box 97 Folder 5487-5570
Seldon, Lynde - Simon, Nelly.
Box 98 Folder 5571-5653
Simon and Schuster, Inc. - Sinclair, Elsie.
Box 99 Folder 5654-5673
Sinclair, Upton - Smith, Edward H. (1913-1921).
Box 100 Folder 5674-5719
Smith, Edward H. (1922-1927) - Smith Book Company.
Box 101 Folder 5720-5728
Smyser, William Leon - Stalin, Joseph.
Box 102 Folder 5729-5852
Stanchfield & Levy - Stoddart, Dayton.
Box 103 Folder 5853-5932
Stokely, James - Swarthmore College.
Box 104 Folder 5933-6020
Sweeney, Ben - Telephone Subscribers Protective League.
Box 105 Folder 6021-6084
Temple University Woman's Club - Tomas, D.
Box 106 Folder 6085-6176
Toner, Williams McCulloch - United Press International.
Box 107 Folder 6177-6276
United States. Assistant Secretary of State - University of Iowa.
Box 108 Folder 6277-6332
University of Michigan - Veritas Press.
Box 109 Folder 6333-6392
Verlag J. Engelhorns Nachf. Stuttgart - Wake, B. H.
Box 110 Folder 6393-6458
Walburn, Nancy - Weiss, Rudolph.
Box 111 Folder 6459-6557
Weissenberger, M. C. - Whitlock, Douglas.
Box 112 Folder 6558-6644
Whitman, Charles Sidney - Willson, Bob William.
Box 113 Folder 6645-6718
Wilson, Charles Morrow - Wood, Robert Scofield.
Box 114 Folder 6719-6797
Woodbourne Correctional Facility - Woythaler, Erich.
Box 115 Folder 6798-6844
Wrenn, Charles I. - Youngblood, Jean.
Box 116 Folder 6845-6902
Your LifeZweiger, William L. & unidentified.
Box 117 Folder 6903-6935

Series Description

This series is divided into two sections: Estelle Kubitz Williams materials and materials relating to the Los Angeles Public Library's exhibitions and acquisitions of Dreiser materials. Estelle Kubitz Williams materials include correspondence between Ms. Williams and her sister Marion; her husband Arthur P. Williams; and Harold Hersey. Each of these is housed in a separate folder, organized chronologically. Other titles in this series (all collected by Ms. Williams) are: recipes; jokes; typed fact s about European history; excerpts from books; poetry; lists of names; travel notes on Jews and Jerusalem; proverbs from different countries; and miscellaneous materials.

The Los Angeles Public Library correspondence is housed in two folders arranged chronologically. One folder contains correspondence between the Library and Helen Dreiser, the other between the Library and Lorna D. Smith.

Materials collected by or related to Estelle Kubitz Williams.
Box 118 Folder 6936-6952
Files relating to the Los Angeles Public Library concerning Dreiser exhibition and acquisitions, 1946-1951.
Box 118 Folder 6953-6954

Series Description

This series divides as follows: Theodore Dreiser's Will, 1/2 box; publishers contracts, arranged alphabetically by publisher name, and copyrights arranged by book title, 1 1/2 boxes; foreign language contracts, 1 box; Dreiser's legal dealings with Hor ace Liveright Theatrical Productions, 1 box; Dreiser's legal battles with Erwin Piscator, 1 box; Dreiser's lawyers' files concerning various cases (including: Dreiser v. Dreiser; The "Genius"; the Paramount cases regarding An American Tragedy; and South American lawsuits pertaining to the publishing of America is Worth Saving and Jennie Gerhardt), 1 box. Finally, legal papers in volving the trial of the book An American Tragedy in Boston and The "Genius" protest, 1 box.

Theodore Dreiser's Last Will and Testament.
Box 119 Folder 6955
Contracts: Horace Liveright, Inc., 1929-1938.
Box 119 Folder 6956
Contracts: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1934-1942.
Box 119 Folder 6957
Contracts: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1939-1941.
Box 119 Folder 6958-6959
Contracts: World Publishing Company, 1946-1949.
Box 119 Folder 6960
Contracts: University of Pennsylvania, 1942-1949.
Box 119 Folder 6961
Copyrights: "An Address to Caliban" - "Epitaph".
Box 119 Folder 6962-6975
Copyrights: The Financier - "You, the Phantom".
Box 120 Folder 6976-7010
Contracts: Argentina.
Box 121 Folder 7011
Contracts: Austria.
Box 121 Folder 7012
Contracts: Canada.
Box 121 Folder 7013
Contracts: Czechoslovakia.
Box 121 Folder 7014
Contracts: Denmark.
Box 121 Folder 7015
Contracts: England.
Box 121 Folder 7016
Contracts: Finland.
Box 121 Folder 7017
Contracts: France.
Box 121 Folder 7018
Contracts: Germany.
Box 121 Folder 7019
Contracts: Holland.
Box 121 Folder 7020
Contracts: Hungary.
Box 121 Folder 7021
Contracts: Italy.
Box 121 Folder 7022
Contracts: Japan.
Box 121 Folder 7023
Contracts: Norway.
Box 121 Folder 7024
Contracts: Poland.
Box 121 Folder 7025
Contracts: Portugal.
Box 121 Folder 7026
Contracts: Russia.
Box 121 Folder 7027
Contracts: South America.
Box 121 Folder 7028
Contracts: Sweden.
Box 121 Folder 7029
Contracts: Switzerland.
Box 121 Folder 7030
Contracts & Correspondence: Horace Liveright Theatrical Productions, 1926-1932.
Box 122 Folder 7031-7037
Correspondence & Accounts: Piscator-Bühne (Dramaturgie), 1929-1937.
Box 123 Folder 7038-7048
Lawyers' Files: Dreiser v. Dreiser, 1926.
Box 124 Folder 7049
Lawyers' Files: "The Genius", 1929.
Box 124 Folder 7050
Lawyers' Files: Paramount Publix Corp. cases, 1931-1938.
Box 124 Folder 7051-7054
Notes & Clippings: Paramount Publix Corp./ An American Tragedycase, 1930-1932.
Box 124 Folder 7055-7056
South American Lawsuits: America Is Worth Saving & Jennie Gerhardt, 1941-1943.
Box 124 Folder 7057-7058
An American Tragedy: trial of the book in Boston, Commonwealth of Mass. v. Donald S. Friede, 1929.
Box 125 Folder 7059-7061
The "Genius": protest, 1916.
Box 125 Folder 7062-7066
The "Genius": lawsuit, Theodore Dreiser v. John Lane Co., 1921.
Box 125 Folder 7067-7073
The "Genius": memorandum of law re proposed moving picture production, 1929.
Box 125 Folder 7074

Series Description

This series includes everything Dreiser himself labeled a book manuscript, all works that were adapted by Dreiser or someone else from one of his books, and secondary material used to promote his books or related works. The order of arrangement for each title is chronological, following the process of writing from initial planning to publication: notes and outlines, pamphlets, and other research materials; manuscripts; typescripts; printers' proofs; book jackets, dummies, and advertising copy; discarded manuscript fragments; and adaptations from the book. Thus, under An American Tragedy, researchers will find not only all manuscripts, typescripts, proofs, and dust jackets for the book, but also a tabloid and a condensed version of the novel; all the playscripts in English and other languages, plus playbills and programs from any of these versions that were actually produced; a scenario for an opera; and movie scripts from the 1931 An American Tragedy and the 1951 A Place in the Sun.

This series also includes all the material that Dreiser filed under "Philosophical Notes." He intended to publish a book that clarified his philosophy of the meaning of life and the workings of the universe: these notes represent his research and efforts thereon. Dreiser, however, died before finishing all the manuscripts for the project. Because these materials ultimately did form the basis of a published book, Notes on Life (1973), they are located in this series. Notes on Life represents a selection of the material found here and was edited by Marguerite Tjader. Her papers for this work follow Dreiser's notes.

Not included in this series, however, are a few "false starts" or beginnings of fictional works that Dreiser may have intended to expand into novels but that remained unfinished, e.g., "Mea Culpa," "Our Neighborhood," and "The Rake." These titles are located in the series Notes Written and Compiled by TD in boxes 396 and 397 under the heading "Novels, unfinished." Also not included in this series are published reviews of Dreiser's books. Reviews can be found in several locations. Box 468 contains miscellaneous clippings of reviews organized chronologically by title, but researchers should note the location of other reviews in the container list under the respective book titles.

The amount of material listed for each title varies. Penn's Dreiser Papers does not contain all of Dreiser's book manuscripts in their original form, but the collection does include photocopies of some manuscript materials held by other institutions or individuals. Such material is noted on the container list. As mentioned in the Scope and Content Note, some books that contain previously published essays or stories (e.g., Free and Other Stories) are not included in TD Writings: Books, because Penn's collection does not have an actual book manuscript as identified by Dreiser. Manuscripts for these shorter pieces are housed under their respective genre titles (e.g., short stories, plays).

When Dreiser's manuscripts were typed, he usually asked for an original and several carbons, which he then distributed to his friends for their comments and editorial suggestions. Thus, some typescripts in the Dreiser Papers may contain revisions in a hand other than Dreiser's; when this handwriting could be identified, the information was noted on the folder.

The manuscripts, typescripts, and proofs are given Dreiser's term of identification unless it is obviously incorrect. If no identifying term was assigned by Dreiser, an arbitrary term has been supplied, based on the item's chronological position within Penn's holdings for that book. Therefore, if several typescripts of a book were unidentified or were all identified as "revised typescripts," they have been arranged chronologically and given designations such as "Typescript A, B, C‥" if they are different typescripts or "Typescript A," "Typescript A, revised," and so forth, if they are revised versions of the same typescript.


For reviews of Sister Carrie, see Box 420

Sister Carrie: 1st typescript (chaps. I-XLVII). chaps. I-XLVII.
Box 126 Folder 7075-7098
General Physical Description note

chaps. I-XLVII

Materials Viewable Online
  1. Sister Carrie.
Sister Carrie: book jackets.
Box 126 Folder 7099
Sister Carrie (Pa. ed.): emendations in the copy-text by James L. W. West III (chaps. I-XXIX).
Box 126 Folder 7100

Letter from West to Neda Westlake; note on comparison of handwriting of Arthur Henry and Sara White Dreiser on the typescript.

Sister Carrie (Pa. ed.): emendations in the copy-text by West (chaps. XXX-L).
Box 126 Folder 7101
Sister Carrie (Pa. ed.): rejected proof alterations and sample historical collation .
Box 126 Folder 7102
Sister Carrie: two outlines by?.
Box 127 Folder 7103
Sister Carrie: dramatization by H. S. Kraft (dramatic outline; acts I, II, III).
Box 127 Folder 7104-7106
Sister Carrie: dramatization by H. S. Kraft (?) (acts I, II, III).
Box 127 Folder 7107-7109
Sister Carrie: dramatization by John Howard.
Box 127 Folder 7110
Sister Carrie: dramatization by Kathryn Sayre (synopsis of scenes; prologue, acts, I, 2, 3).
Box 127 Folder 7111-7114
Sister Carrie: dramatization by Kathryn Sayre (prologue, acts 1, 2, 3).
Box 127 Folder 7115-7117
Sister Carrie: synopsis by Elizabeth Kearney.
Box 127 Folder 7118
Sister Carrie: screen adaptation by Helen Richardson.
Box 127 Folder 7119
Jennie Gerhardt ("The Transgressor").
Box 128 Folder 7120

Sample front cover and title page; 2 typeset pages; ms from which typeset pages were made; note from James L. W. West III; note about sale of ms.

Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chaps. I-X).
Box 128 Folder 7121-7133
Materials Viewable Online
  1. Jennie Gerhardt (Dreiser Manuscript)
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chap. X-XII).
Box 128 Folder 7134
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chap. XII (conc.); chap. XIII; earlier version of chap. XII; fragment of early version of chap. XII) .
Box 128 Folder 7135
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chaps. XIV-XXV)).
Box 129 Folder 7136-7141
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chaps. XXVI; XVIII; another version of XXVI?) .
Box 129 Folder 7142
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (unnumbered chap. that follows chap. XXVI).
Box 129 Folder 7143
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chaps.XXVII-XXIX).
Box 129 Folder 7144-7146
Jennie Gerhardt: early ms (chap. XXX; also other chaps.?) .
Box 129 Folder 7147
Jennie Gerhardt: ms (chaps. XIV-XXXVI).
Box 130 Folder 7148-7170
Jennie Gerhardt: ms (chaps. XXXVII-LX).
Box 131 Folder 7171-7194
Jennie Gerhardt: annotated typescript (chaps. I-XIII).
Box 132 Folder 7195-7204
Jennie Gerhardt: typescript (chaps. I-XXX).
Box 132 Folder 7205-7218
Jennie Gerhardt: book jackets.
Box 132 Folder 7219
Jennie Gerhardt: lists of people to receive complimentary copies.
Box 132 Folder 7220
Jennie Gerhardt: outline for a play?.
Box 132 Folder 7221
"The Story of Jennie," playscript by? (acts I,II).
Box 132 Folder 7222-7223
Dates TD worked on The Financier, The Titan, and The Stoic.
Box 133 Folder 7224
Notes on characters in The Financier.
Box 133 Folder 7225
Notes on characters in The Titan.
Box 133 Folder 7226
Notes for The Financier and The Titan.
Box 133 Folder 7227-7243
Notes for The Financier and The Titan.
Box 134 Folder 7244-7262
The Financier: original ms. (chaps. I-XLIII), 1912.
Box 135 Folder 7263-7305
The Financier: original mas. (chaps. XLIV-LI), 1912.
Box 136 Folder 7306-7313
The Financier: original ms. (chaps. 48-56), 1912.
Box 136 Folder 7314-7322
The Financier: original ms. (chaps. 62-70), 1912.
Box 136 Folder 7323-7331
The Financier: original ms. (chaps. LXXI-80), 1912.
Box 137 Folder 7332-7341
The Financier: typescript carbon (chaps. I-XXXVIII), 1912.
Box 137 Folder 7342-7379
The Financier: page proofs, 1912.
Box 138 Folder 7380
The Financier: typescript carbon (chaps. I-LXX), 1927.
Box 139 Folder 7381-7406
The Financier: 1st galleys, 1927.
Box 140 Folder 7407
The Financier: revised galleys, 1927.
Box 140 Folder 7408
"The Cowperwood Story," a streamlined plot synopsis of The Financier, The Titan, and The Stoic, version 1.
Box 141 Folder 7409
"The Cowperwood Story," version 2.
Box 141 Folder 7410-7412
The Financier and The Titan: synopses by?.
Box 141 Folder 7413-7418
The Financier: synopsis by Alvin G. Manuel, annotated by TD.
Box 141 Folder 7419
The Financier: synopsis by Lorna D. Smith.
Box 141 Folder 7420
The Financier and The Titan: synopses by Elizabeth Kearney.
Box 141 Folder 7421-7424
The Financier: book jackets.
Box 141 Folder 7425
The Financier: advertising copy, with additions by Anna Tatum.
Box 141 Folder 7426
The Financier: dramatization by Rella Abell Armstrong of The Financier & The Titan,annotated by TD.
Box 141 Folder 7427-7430
The Financier: dramatization by Rella Abell Armstrong of The Financier and The Titan.
Box 141 Folder 7431-7432
The Financier: scenario by Rella Abell Armstrong.
Box 141 Folder 7433

For reviews of A Traveler at Forty, see Box 421.

A Traveler at Forty: diary notes, 1911 Nov. 25-16 Jan. 1912.
Box 142 Folder 7434-7439
A Traveler at Forty: diary notes, 1912 Jan.17-March 18.
Box 143 Folder 7440-7454
A Traveler at Forty: drawings made for TD by other travelers.
Box 143 Folder 7455
A Traveler at Forty: diary notes, 1912 March 19- April 25.
Box 144 Folder 7456-7466
A Traveler at Forty: newspaper clippings re the sinking of The Titanic, 1912 April 23-24 .
Box 144 Folder 7467
A Traveler at Forty: typescript (chaps. I-XLVI).
Box 145 Folder 7468-7514
A Traveler at Forty: typescript (chaps. XLVII-103).
Box 146 Folder 7515-7571
A Traveler at Forty: revised typescript (chaps. 1-XI).
Box 147 Folder 7572-7584
A Traveler at Forty: revised typescript (chaps. 36-37).
Box 147 Folder 7585-7587
A Traveler at Forty: revised typescript, "The Quest for My Ancestral Home".
Box 147 Folder 7588
A Traveler at Forty: revised typescript, "The Berlin Public Service".
Box 147 Folder 7589
A Traveler at Forty: revised typescript, "Night-Life in Berlin".
Box 147 Folder 7590
A Traveler at Forty: revised typescript.
Box 147 Folder 7591-7592
A Traveler at Forty: excerpts for advertising purposes?.
Box 147 Folder 7593
A Traveler at Forty: advertising or review copy?.
Box 147 Folder 7594
The Titan: ms (chaps. I-26).
Box 148 Folder 7595-7621
The Titan: ms (chaps. XXVII-L).
Box 149 Folder 7622-7645
The Titan: ms (chaps. LI-LXXIV).
Box 150 Folder 7646-7669
The Titan: ms (chaps. LXXV-XC).
Box 151 Folder 7670-7686
The Titan: ms (chaps. 67-71).
Box 151 Folder 7687-7691
The Titan: ms (chaps. 72-77).
Box 152 Folder 7692-7697
The Titan: ms (chaps. XCI-XCII).
Box 152 Folder 7698-7699
The Titan: ms (chaps. CII-CIII).
Box 152 Folder 7700-7701
The Titan: typescript carbon (chaps. I-29); with editing by Anna Tatum (typed from ms in Boxes 148 and 149) .
Box 153 Folder 7702-7714
The Titan: chap. 66; revised typescript and retyped version, with editing by Anna Tatum .
Box 153 Folder 7715-7716
The Titan: chap. 67 (ms); chap. 67 (typescript typed from ms chap. 67).
Box 153 Folder 7717-7718
The Titan: chap. 68 (ms); chap. 68 (typescript typed from ms chap. 68, 2 pages missing).
Box 153 Folder 7719-7720
The Titan: chap. 69 (ms); chap. 72 (typescript typed from ms chap. 69).
Box 153 Folder 7721-7722
The Titan: chap. 70 (ms); chap. 73 (typescript typed from ms chap. 70).
Box 153 Folder 7723-7724
The Titan: chap. 71 (ms); chap. 74 (typescript typed from ms chap. 71).
Box 153 Folder 7725-7726
The Titan: chap. 72.
Box 153 Folder 7727
The Titan: chaps. 67-77.
Box 153 Folder 7728-7733
The Titan: chaps. CII, CIII.
Box 153 Folder 7734
The Titan: 1st revised galleys.
Box 154 Folder 7735
The Titan: 2nd revised galleys.
Box 154 Folder 7736
The Titan: ms and typescript fragments from various versions.
Box 155 Folder 7737-7771
The Titan: book jacket.
Box 155 Folder 7772
"Law and Lawyers," written for The Titan?.
Box 155 Folder 7773
The Titan: scenes to make a play.
Box 155 Folder 7774

For reviews of The "Genius", see Box 423.

The "Genius": ms (chaps. I-XXX).
Box 156 Folder 7775-7804
The "Genius": ms (chaps. XXXI-LX).
Box 157 Folder 7805-7834
The "Genius": ms (chaps. LXI-XC).
Box 158 Folder 7835-7864
The "Genius": ms (chaps. XCI-CV).
Box 159 Folder 7865-7879
The "Genius": lst typescript A (chaps. I-LXXIX [1st typescripts A and B begin to diverge at chap. LXXVIII]) .
Box 160 Folder 7880-7914

1st typescripts A and B begin to diverge at chap. LXXVIII.

The "Genius": 1st typescript A (chaps. LXXX-CIII).
Box 161 Folder 7915-7928
The "Genius": revised typescript (chap. CIV).
Box 161 Folder 7929
The "Genius": 1st typescript A (chap. CV).
Box 161 Folder 7930
The "Genius": 1st typescript B (chaps. I-XLVI) .
Box 162 Folder 7931-7966
The "Genius": 1st typescript B (chaps. XLXII-CIV).
Box 163 Folder 7967-7977
The "Genius": revised typescript.
Box 164 Folder 7978-8012
The "Genius": book jackets.
Box 164 Folder 8013
The "Genius": 1st German printing.
Box 164 Folder 8014
The "Genius": galley proofs.
Box 165 Folder 8015
The "Genius": long and short résumés of the book by Lorna D. Smith; synopsis of a screen adaptation by?.
Box 166 Folder 8016
The "Genius": ideas for dramatization.
Box 166 Folder 8017
The "Genius": letter to Louise Campbell with versions of dramatizations.
Box 166 Folder 8018
The "Genius": proposals by TD for a play or movie version; newspaper clipping.
Box 166 Folder 8019
"The Stuff of Dreams" (The "Genius") play: 1st draft.
Box 166 Folder 8020-8022
The "Genius": summary of a play version by TD.
Box 166 Folder 8023
The "Genius": proposal for a play version by TD; prologue.
Box 166 Folder 8024-8027
The "Genius": play version by TD.
Box 166 Folder 8028-8032
The "Genius": dramatic adaptation by?.
Box 166 Folder 8033-8034
The "Genius": dramatization by?.
Box 167 Folder 8035-8040
The "Genius": a play based on TD's novel by Odin Gregory.
Box 167 Folder 8041-8044
The "Genius": discarded fragments and versions from acts I and II of typescripts in Boxes 166 and 167.
Box 168 Folder 8045-8061
The "Genius": discarded fragments and versions from acts III and IV and final scene.
Box 169 Folder 8062-8069
The "Genius": criticism and comments on the novel.
Box 169 Folder 8070
The "Genius": pages from a scrapbook with clippings of reviews.
Box 169 Folder 8071
The "Genius": documents pertaining to the book's suppression.
Box 169 Folder 8072
The "Genius": miscellaneous.
Box 169 Folder 8073
The "Genius": magazine version, published in Metropolitan Magazine, 1923.
Box 170 Folder 8074-8083

See Box 455 for the postcards that TD collected on his trip to Indiana, which was the basis of A Hoosier Holiday.

A Hoosier Holiday: diary notes.
Box 171 Folder 8084-8085
A Hoosier Holiday: maps and schedules re trip to Indiana.
Box 171 Folder 8086

See Box 484, folder 14680 for oversize map.

A Hoosier Holiday: ms.
Box 171 Folder 8087-8121
A Hoosier Holiday: ms.
Box 172 Folder 8122-8154
A Hoosier Holiday: typescript with additions by TD and?.
Box 173 Folder 8155-8187
A Hoosier Holiday: sample copy of jacket; corrections for galleys.
Box 173 Folder 8188
A Hoosier Holiday: book jacket.
Box 173 Folder 8189
A Hoosier Holiday: miscellaneous.
Box 173 Folder 8190
"From A Hoosier Holiday, by Theodore Dreiser," printed version of article in The Hoosier, 1917.
Box 173 Folder 8191
A Hoosier Holiday: 1st galleys (?).
Box 174 Folder 8192
A Hoosier Holiday: revised galleys (?).
Box 174 Folder 8193

For reviews of Twelve Men, see Box 423.

Twelve Men: "My Brother Paul," printed version.
Box 175 Folder 8194
Twelve Men: notes and essays relating to "The Country Doctor".
Box 175 Folder 8195-8205
Twelve Men: "Heart Bowed Down" ("The Village Feudists").
Box 175 Folder 8206
Twelve Men: "The Village Feudists," reprint published in Famous Story Magazine.
Box 175 Folder 8207
Twelve Men: "Sonntag-A Record" ("W.L.S.").
Box 175 Folder 8208
Twelve Men: "W.L.S.," printed version.
Box 175 Folder 8209
Twelve Men: notes and clippings on the Robin case used for "Vanity, Vanity Saith the Preacher".
Box 175 Folder 8210-8216
Twelve Men: book jackets.
Box 175 Folder 8217
Twelve Men: corrected page proofs.
Box 176 Folder 8218
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: notes.
Box 177 Folder 8219
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub".
Box 177 Folder 8220-8221
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Change," version published in New York Call (1918).
Box 177 Folder 8222
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Change".
Box 177 Folder 8223-8224
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Some Aspects of Our National Character".
Box 177 Folder 8225
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "The Dream".
Box 177 Folder 8226
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "The American Financier".
Box 177 Folder 8227-8228
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: ("The Toil of the Laboring Man").
Box 177 Folder 8229
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "The Toil of the Laborer" ("The Toil of the Laboring Man").
Box 177 Folder 8230
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Personality".
Box 177 Folder 8231-8232
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Secrecy".
Box 177 Folder 8233
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Neurotic America and the Sex Impulse".
Box 177 Folder 8234
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Ideals, Morals, and the Daily Newspaper".
Box 177 Folder 8235-8237
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Equation Inevitable".
Box 177 Folder 8238-8239
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Ashtoreth".
Box 177 Folder 8240-8241
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "The Reformer".
Box 177 Folder 8242
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Marriage and Divorce: An Interview".
Box 177 Folder 8243-8244
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: ("More Democracy or Less? An Inquiry").
Box 177 Folder 8245
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "More Democracy or Less? An Inquiry".
Box 177 Folder 8246-8247
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "The Essential Tragedy of Life".
Box 177 Folder 8248-8250
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Life, Art, and America".
Box 177 Folder 8251
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "The Court of Progress".
Box 177 Folder 8252
Hey Rub-a-Dub-Dub: "Neurotic America and the Sex Impulse" and "Some Aspects of Our National Character," printed versions.
Box 177 Folder 8253

For reviews of Newspaper Days, see Box 423.

Newspaper Days: topics to be covered; notes for catalog copy.
Box 178 Folder 8254
Newspaper Days: miscellaneous.
Box 178 Folder 8255
Newspaper Days: ms.
Box 178 Folder 8256-8288
Newspaper Days: ms.
Box 179 Folder 8289-8329
Newspaper Days: 1st typescript.
Box 180 Folder 8330-8364
Newspaper Days: typescript 1A with TD's corrections.
Box 181 Folder 8365-8370
Newspaper Days: "Yellow Manuscript".
Box 181 Folder 8371-8380
Newspaper Days: 2nd typescript.
Box 182 Folder 8381-8423
Newspaper Days: unrevised 2nd typescript.
Box 183 Folder 8424-8466
Newspaper Days: copy of typesetting copy (chaps. I-XLV).
Box 184 Folder 8467-8511
Newspaper Days: copy of typesetting copy (chaps. XLVI-LXXX).
Box 185 Folder 8512-8546
Newspaper Days: index to 1st edition of A Book about Myself (Newspaper Days) edited by T. D. Nostwichitle, 1922.
Box 185 Folder 8547
Newspaper Days: book jackets for A Book about Myself (Newspaper Days).
Box 185 Folder 8548
Newspaper Days: foreword and author's note to edition, 1931.
Box 185 Folder 8549
Newspaper Days: corrected galley proofs and note.
Box 186 Folder 8550
Newspaper Days: uncorrected galley proofs, with missing pages from chap. XXXVI included.
Box 186 Folder 8551
Newspaper Days: bound Vol. 1 of corrected page proofs.
Box 187 Folder 8552
Newspaper Days: bound Vol. 2 of corrected page proofs.
Box 188 Folder 8553

For reviews of The Color of a Great City, see Box 423.

The Color of a Great City: proposed chapter order.
Box 189 Folder 8554
The Color of a Great City: foreword by TD.
Box 189 Folder 8555
The Color of a Great City: "A Week with Ocean Pilots" (version of "Log of a Harbor Pilot").
Box 189 Folder 8556
The Color of a Great City: "Bums".
Box 189 Folder 8557
The Color of a Great City: "The Car Yard".
Box 189 Folder 8558
The Color of a Great City: "The Flight of Pidgeons".
Box 189 Folder 8559
The Color of a Great City: "On Being Poor".
Box 189 Folder 8560
The Color of a Great City: "Six o'Clock".
Box 189 Folder 8561
The Color of a Great City: "The Toilers of the Tenements" ("The Inspector").
Box 189 Folder 8562
The Color of a Great City: "The Inspector".
Box 189 Folder 8563
The Color of a Great City: ("The End of a Vacation").
Box 189 Folder 8564
The Color of a Great City: "The Track Walker".
Box 189 Folder 8565
The Color of a Great City: "The Realization of an Ideal".
Box 189 Folder 8566-8567
The Color of a Great City: "The Pushcart Man".
Box 189 Folder 8568-8569
The Color of a Great City: "The Bread Line".
Box 189 Folder 8570-8571
The Color of a Great City: "Our Red Slayer".
Box 189 Folder 8572-8573
The Color of a Great City: "Whence the Song".
Box 189 Folder 8574
The Color of a Great City: "Characters".
Box 189 Folder 8575-8576
The Color of a Great City: "The Beauty of Life".
Box 189 Folder 8577-8578
The Color of a Great City: "The Way Place of the Fallen".
Box 189 Folder 8579
The Color of a Great City: "A Way Place of the Fallen".
Box 189 Folder 8580
The Color of a Great City: "Bayonne" (a version of "A Certain Oil Refinery").
Box 189 Folder 8581
The Color of a Great City: "The Bowery Mission".
Box 189 Folder 8582-8583
The Color of a Great City: "The Wonder of the Water".
Box 189 Folder 8584
The Color of a Great City: "The Man on the Bench".
Box 189 Folder 8585-8586
The Color of a Great City: "The Men in the Dark".
Box 189 Folder 8587-8588
The Color of a Great City: "The Men in the Snow".
Box 189 Folder 8589
The Color of a Great City: "The Freshness of the Universe".
Box 189 Folder 8590
The Color of a Great City: "The Freshness of the Universe".
Box 189 Folder 8591
The Color of a Great City: "The Cradle of Tears".
Box 189 Folder 8592
The Color of a Great City: "The Sandwich Man".
Box 189 Folder 8593
The Color of a Great City: "The Sandwich Man".
Box 189 Folder 8594
The Color of a Great City: "The Love Affairs of Little Italy".
Box 189 Folder 8595
The Color of a Great City: "Christmas in the Tenements".
Box 189 Folder 8596
The Color of a Great City: "Christmas in the Tenements".
Box 189 Folder 8597
The Color of a Great City: "The Rivers of the Nameless Dead".
Box 189 Folder 8598
The Color of a Great City: "The Rivers of the Nameless Dead".
Box 189 Folder 8599
The Color of a Great City: foreword by TD.
Box 190 Folder 8600
The Color of a Great City: "The City of My Dreams".
Box 190 Folder 8601
The Color of a Great City: "The City Awakes".
Box 190 Folder 8602
The Color of a Great City: "The Waterfront".
Box 190 Folder 8603
The Color of a Great City: "The Log of a Harbor Pilot".
Box 190 Folder 8604
The Color of a Great City: "Bums".
Box 190 Folder 8605-8606
The Color of a Great City: "The Michael J. Powers Association".
Box 190 Folder 8607
The Color of a Great City: "The Fire".
Box 190 Folder 8608
The Color of a Great City: "The Flight of Pigeons".
Box 190 Folder 8609
The Color of a Great City: "On Being Poor".
Box 190 Folder 8610
The Color of a Great City: "Six o'Clock".
Box 190 Folder 8611
The Color of a Great City: "The Toilers of the Tenements".
Box 190 Folder 8612
The Color of a Great City: "The End of a Vacation".
Box 190 Folder 8613
The Color of a Great City: "The Track Walker".
Box 190 Folder 8614
The Color of a Great City: "The Realization of an Ideal".
Box 190 Folder 8615
The Color of a Great City: "The Pushcart Man".
Box 190 Folder 8616
The Color of a Great City: "Manhattan Beach" ("A Vanished Seaside Resort").
Box 190 Folder 8617
The Color of a Great City: "The Bread Line".
Box 190 Folder 8618
The Color of a Great City: "Our Red Slayer".
Box 190 Folder 8619
The Color of a Great City: "When the Sails Are Furled".
Box 190 Folder 8620
The Color of a Great City: "Characters".
Box 190 Folder 8621
The Color of a Great City: "The Beauty of Life".
Box 190 Folder 8622
The Color of a Great City: "The Way Place of the Fallen".
Box 190 Folder 8623
The Color of a Great City: "Hell's Kitchen".
Box 190 Folder 8624
The Color of a Great City: "A Certain Oil Works Refinery".
Box 190 Folder 8625
The Color of a Great City: "The Bowery Mission".
Box 190 Folder 8626
The Color of a Great City: "The Wonder of the Water".
Box 190 Folder 8627
The Color of a Great City: "The Man on the Bench".
Box 190 Folder 8628
The Color of a Great City: "The Men in the Dark".
Box 190 Folder 8629
The Color of a Great City: "The Men in the Storm".
Box 190 Folder 8630
The Color of a Great City: "The Men in the Snow".
Box 190 Folder 8631
The Color of a Great City: "The Freshness of the Universe".
Box 190 Folder 8632
The Color of a Great City: "The Cradle of Tears".
Box 190 Folder 8633
The Color of a Great City: "The Sandwich Man".
Box 190 Folder 8634
The Color of a Great City: "The Love Affairs of Little Italy".
Box 190 Folder 8635
The Color of a Great City: "Christmas in the Tenements".
Box 190 Folder 8636
The Color of a Great City: "The Rivers of the Nameless Dead".
Box 190 Folder 8637
The Color of a Great City: typesetting version; note from TD.
Box 191 Folder 8638-8676
The Color of a Great City: book jacket.
Box 191 Folder 8677
The Color of a Great City: early galleys, with illustrations attached by TD, 1923 Oct.
Box 192 Folder 8678
The Color of a Great City: early galleys, proofreader's copy(?).
Box 192 Folder 8679
The Color of a Great City: early galleys, with TD's corrections.
Box 192 Folder 8680
The Color of a Great City: 3rd revised galleys, with original and substituted preface, 1923 Oct.
Box 192 Folder 8681
The Color of a Great City: 3rd revised galleys, unmarked, missing p. 2 of foreword and some pages from last essay.
Box 192 Folder 8682
An American Tragedy: original ms (chaps. IV-XX), 1920-1921.
Box 193 Folder 8683-8700
An American Tragedy: typescript of ms (chaps. I-XX), 1920-1921.
Box 193 Folder 8701-8710
An American Tragedy: Book I, ms (chaps. I-32).
Box 194 Folder 8711-8744
An American Tragedy: Book II, ms (chaps. I-20).
Box 195 Folder 8745-8770
An American Tragedy: Book II, ms (chaps. 21-40).
Box 196 Folder 8771-8794
An American Tragedy: Book II, ms (chaps. 41-57).
Box 197 Folder 8795-8821
An American Tragedy: Book II, ms (chaps. 58-71).
Box 198 Folder 8822-8841
An American Tragedy: Book III, ms (chaps. 1-14).
Box 199 Folder 8842-8859
An American Tragedy: Book III, ms (chaps. 15-24).
Box 200 Folder 8860-8874
An American Tragedy: Book III, ms (chaps. 25-35).
Box 201 Folder 8875-8894
An American Tragedy: Book II, typescript B (chaps. XXX-LIV).
Box 203 Folder 8928-8954
An American Tragedy: Book II, typescript B (fragments).
Box 203 Folder 8955

Although chapter numbering is not continuous, events discussed in typescript B follow immediately the events discussed in typescript A in Box 202; some editing of typescript B by Sally Kussell.

An American Tragedy: Book II, revised typescript A (chaps. I-XXI) revised by Louise Campbell; few additions by TD.
Box 204 Folder 8956-8969
An American Tragedy: Book III, typescript C (chaps. I-II).
Box 205 Folder 8970-8971

Some revisions of chaps. in this box by Louise Campbell and ?.

An American Tragedy: Book III, revised typescript C (chap. II).
Box 205 Folder 8972
An American Tragedy: Book III, revised typescript C, with corrections (chap. II and a fragment).
Box 205 Folder 8973
An American Tragedy: Book III, typescript C (chaps. 3-XXI).
Box 205 Folder 8974-9005
An American Tragedy: Book III, typescript C (chaps. XXII-XXXV).
Box 206 Folder 9006-9025
An American Tragedy: Book I, 1st typescript (chaps. I, II).
Box 207 Folder 9026
An American Tragedy: Book I, final revised typescript? (chaps. I-XXIX).
Box 207 Folder 9027-9039
An American Tragedy: Book II, final revised typescript? (chaps. I-XXXXIX) revisions by TD, Louise Campbell, Helen Dreiser, T. R. Smith, and?.
Box 208 Folder 9040-9075
An American Tragedy: Book III, revised typescript C (chaps. I-XXXIV).
Box 209 Folder 9076-9099
An American Tragedy: front matter pages for typesetting.
Box 210 Folder 9100
An American Tragedy: Book I, typesetting copy (chaps. I-XIX).
Box 210 Folder 9101-9112
An American Tragedy: Book II, typesetting copy (chaps. I-XXXIV).
Box 210 Folder 9113-9128
An American Tragedy: Book II, typesetting copy (chaps. XXXV-XLVIII).
Box 211 Folder 9129-9135
An American Tragedy: Book III, typesetting copy (chaps. I-XXXV).
Box 211 Folder 9136-9153

Gap in chapter numbering, but nothing missing.

An American Tragedy: book jackets and hard cover.
Box 211 Folder 9154
An American Tragedy: condensed version, published in Bestsellers, 1946 Oct. .
Box 211 Folder 9155
An American Tragedy: Book II, revised typesetting carbon (chaps. I-XI, XIII-XLV, XLVII-XLIX).
Box 212 Folder 9156-9180
An American Tragedy: Book I, author's galleys.
Box 213 Folder 9181
An American Tragedy: Book II, author's galleys.
Box 213 Folder 9182
An American Tragedy: Book III, author's galleys.
Box 213 Folder 9183
An American Tragedy: Book I, revised pages.
Box 214 Folder 9184
An American Tragedy: Book II, 1st pages.
Box 214 Folder 9185
An American Tragedy: Book II, revised pages.
Box 214 Folder 9186
An American Tragedy: Book III, 1st pages.
Box 214 Folder 9187
An American Tragedy: dramatization by Frederick Thon.
Box 215 Folder 9188-9189
An American Tragedy: dramatization by Patrick Kearney.
Box 215 Folder 9190-9211
An American Tragedy: dramatization by Georges Jamin and Jean Servais.
Box 215 Folder 9212-9217
An American Tragedy: tabloid version.
Box 215 Folder 9218
An American Tragedy: Dezso D'Antalffy scenario for an opera.
Box 215 Folder 9219
An American Tragedy: dramatization by Erwin Piscator.
Box 216 Folder 9220-9235
An American Tragedy: dramatization by Erwin Piscator and Lina Goldschmidt.
Box 216 Folder 9236-9249
Case of Clyde Griffiths [ An American Tragedy]: dramatization by Piscator and Goldschmidt.
Box 216 Folder 9250
An American Tragedy: dramatization by Erwin Piscator and Lina Goldschmidt.
Box 216 Folder 9251
Eine amerikanische Tragödie: dramatization by Erwin Piscator.
Box 217 Folder 9252-9266
The Law of Lycurgus (An American Tradegy): dramatization by H. Basilewsky.
Box 217 Folder 9267-9268
De Tragedie van Clyde Griffiths (An American Tragedy): Dutch-language dramatization.
Box 217 Folder 9269
An American Tragedy: film scenario by S. M. Eisenstein, G. V. Alexandrov, and Ivor Montagu.
Box 218 Folder 9270-9278
An American Tragedy: Josef Von Sternberg-Samuel H. Hoffenstein film.
Box 218 Folder 9279-9283

1st yellow script, annotated by ?, 30 Jan. 1931; synopsis by Eleanor McGeary; sequences A-Z, AA-HH.

An American Tragedy: Sternberg-Hoffenstein film.
Box 218 Folder 9284-9287

White script, 12 Feb. 1931, sequences A-Z, AA-II.

An American Tragedy: Sternberg-Hoffenstein film.
Box 218 Folder 9288-9290

Form #3, release dialogue script, 27 July 1931, reels 1-10.

A Place in the Sun (An American Tragedy): Harry Brown and Michael Wilson film final white film script with changes, 1949 Sept. 30.
Box 218 Folder 9291-9296
An American Tragedy: miscellaneous notes.
Box 218 Folder 9297
Moods: typesetting copy for 1926 and 1928 editions.
Box 219 Folder 9298-9308
Moods (1928 ed.): typesetting copy for poems added to this ed.
Box 219 Folder 9309-9311
Moods (1928 ed.): galley proofs, with revisions, of poems added to this ed.
Box 220 Folder 9312
Moods (1928 ed.): page proofs, with revisions, of poems added to this ed.
Box 220 Folder 9313
Moods (1935 ed.): typesetting copy, introduction by Sulamith Ish-Kishor; contents pages.
Box 221 Folder 9314
Moods (1935 ed.): contents page.
Box 221 Folder 9315
Moods (1935 ed.): typesetting copy for poems.
Box 221 Folder 9316-9332
Moods (1935 ed.): poems rejected for this ed. (never published).
Box 221 Folder 9333
Dreiser Looks at Russia: diary kept by TD in Russia, and used in writing this work, 1927-1928.
Box 222 Folder 9334
Dreiser Looks at Russia: contents page; "Russia ", 1928.
Box 223 Folder 9335
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Russia ", 1928.
Box 223 Folder 9336
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "The Tyranny of Communism".
Box 223 Folder 9337
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "The Capital of Communism".
Box 223 Folder 9338-9343
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Moscow".
Box 223 Folder 9344-9345
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"Communism Theory and Practice".
Box 223 Folder 9346
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "The Tyranny of Communism".
Box 223 Folder 9347
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "A Former Capital of Tyranny".
Box 223 Folder 9348
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Some Russian Factories and Industries".
Box 223 Folder 9349
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Religion in Russia".
Box 223 Folder 9350
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Present Day Art in Russia".
Box 223 Folder 9351
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Bolshevik Art Literature Music (A)".
Box 223 Folder 9352
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"Bolshevik Art, Literature, Music (B)".
Box 223 Folder 9353
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"Three Russian Restaurants".
Box 223 Folder 9354
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"Russian Restaurants—Three".
Box 223 Folder 9355
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Propaganda Plus".
Box 223 Folder 9356
Dreiser Looks at Russia: fragment of chap. on propaganda.
Box 223 Folder 9357
Dreiser Looks at Russia: fragment of chap. on peasant problem.
Box 223 Folder 9358
Dreiser Looks at Russia: "Russian Vignettes".
Box 223 Folder 9359
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"The Russian versus the American Spirit".
Box 223 Folder 9360
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"The Russian versus the American Temperament".
Box 223 Folder 9361
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"Random Reflections".
Box 223 Folder 9362
Dreiser Looks at Russia:"The Current Soviet Economic Plan".
Box 223 Folder 9363
Dreiser Looks at Russia: typesetting copy (chaps. I-XVIII).
Box 223 Folder 9364-9381
Dreiser Looks at Russia: book jacket and hard cover.
Box 223 Folder 9382
Dreiser Looks at Russia: revised galley proofs.
Box 224 Folder 9383
Dreiser Looks at Russia: 2nd revised galley proofs.
Box 224 Folder 9384
Dreiser Looks at Russia: page proofs.
Box 224 Folder 9385
A Gallery of Women: proposed chapters.
Box 225 Folder 9386
A Gallery of Women: "Mary Pyne" ("Esther Norn").
Box 225 Folder 9387-9389
A Gallery of Women: "M.T." ("Regina C—").
Box 225 Folder 9390
A Gallery of Women: "Yvonne (Ellen) Adams Wrynn".
Box 225 Folder 9391-9393
A Gallery of Women: "Ida Hauchawout".
Box 225 Folder 9394-9395
A Gallery of Women: "Gloom".
Box 225 Folder 9396
A Gallery of Women: "Lucia".
Box 225 Folder 9397
A Gallery of Women: "Ernita".
Box 225 Folder 9398-9399
A Gallery of Women: "Albertine".
Box 225 Folder 9400-9407
A Gallery of Women: "Dinan".
Box 225 Folder 9408
A Gallery of Women: "M.J.C." ("Emanuela").
Box 226 Folder 9409-9412
A Gallery of Women: "Mrs. Hevessy" ("Bridget Mullanphy").
Box 226 Folder 9413-9416
A Gallery of Women: "A Daughter of the Puritans".
Box 227 Folder 9417-9427

Not used in book; see also "This Madness: The Story of Elizabeth," in TD Writings: Essays.

A Gallery of Women: "Ernestine".
Box 228 Folder 9428-9430
A Gallery of Women: "Mary Pyne" ("Esther Norn").
Box 228 Folder 9431
A Gallery of Women: "Esther Norn".
Box 228 Folder 9432
A Gallery of Women: "Rella".
Box 228 Folder 9433-9438
A Gallery of Women: "Reina".
Box 228 Folder 9439-9440
A Gallery of Women: "Regina C—".
Box 228 Folder 9441-9442
A Gallery of Women: "Yvonne (Ellen) Adams Wrynn".
Box 228 Folder 9443-9447
A Gallery of Women: "Ellen Adams Wrynn".
Box 228 Folder 9448
A Gallery of Women: "A Daughter of the Puritans".
Box 229 Folder 9449-9453
A Gallery of Women: "Spaff" ("Giff").
Box 229 Folder 9454-9458
A Gallery of Women: "Giff".
Box 229 Folder 9459
A Gallery of Women: "Out of the City of the Prophet" ("Olive Brand").
Box 229 Folder 9460-9461
A Gallery of Women: "Olive Brand".
Box 229 Folder 9462-9464
A Gallery of Women: "Lolita".
Box 229 Folder 9465-9466
A Gallery of Women: "Ida Hauchawout".
Box 229 Folder 9467-9468
A Gallery of Women: "Gloom".
Box 229 Folder 9469
Materials Viewable Online
  1. Gloom Typescript
A Gallery of Women: "Loretta".
Box 230 Folder 9470-9475
A Gallery of Women: notes on psychology of women, parts of which were used in "Loretta".
Box 230 Folder 9476
A Gallery of Women: "Lucia".
Box 230 Folder 9477-9478
A Gallery of Women: "Ernita".
Box 230 Folder 9479-9480
A Gallery of Women: "Albertine".
Box 230 Folder 9481-9483
A Gallery of Women: "Emanuela".
Box 230 Folder 9484-9487
A Gallery of Women: "Mrs. Mullanphy" ("Bridget Mullanphy").
Box 230 Folder 9488
A Gallery of Women: "Bridget Mullanphy".
Box 230 Folder 9489
A Gallery of Women: "Bridget Mullanphy".
Box 230 Folder 9490
A Gallery of Women: "Rona Murtha".
Box 231 Folder 9491-9503
A Gallery of Women: 1st galley proofs with author's corrections.
Box 232 Folder 9504
A Gallery of Women: 2nd galley proofs.
Box 232 Folder 9505
A Gallery of Women: Vol. I.
Box 233 Folder 9506-9507
A Gallery of Women: Vol. II.
Box 233 Folder 9508-9509
A Gallery of Women: book jackets.
Box 234 Folder 9510
A Gallery of Women: hard covers for book.
Box 234 Folder 9511-9513
A Gallery of Women: preface to the Russian edition by Sergey Dinamov.
Box 234 Folder 9514
"A Gallery of Women:" radio adaptation by William Watters.
Box 234 Folder 9515
"A Gallery of Women:" screen adapt. by Helen Mitchell, 1934.
Box 234 Folder 9516
My City: clipping and xerox.
Box 235 Folder 9517
My City: color proofs of etchings by Max Pollak used in book.
Box 235 Folder 9518
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. I-XX), editing on ms by TD and Anna Tatum.
Box 236 Folder 9519-9538
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. XXI-XL).
Box 237 Folder 9539-9558
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. XLI-LX).
Box 238 Folder 9559-9578
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. LXI-LXXVII).
Box 239 Folder 9579-9595
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. LXXIX-LXXX) and note from Helen Dreiser re chap. LXXVIII.
Box 239 Folder 9596-9597
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. LXXXI-XCVII).
Box 240 Folder 9598-9614
Dawn: xerox of ms at Lilly Library (chaps. XCVIII-CVI).
Box 241 Folder 9615-9623
Dawn: xerox of 1st rough emended typescript at Lilly Library (chaps. I-III).
Box 242 Folder 9624
Dawn: xerox of 1st rough emended typescript at Lilly Library (chap. IV).
Box 242 Folder 9625
Dawn: xerox of 1st rough emended typescript at Lilly Library (chap. V).
Box 242 Folder 9626
Dawn: xerox of 1st rough emended typescript at Lilly Library (chaps. VI-XXXII).
Box 242 Folder 9627-9639
Dawn: 1st typescript (chaps. XXX-[XCIII]).
Box 243 Folder 9640-9675

The chapters in this box follow consecutively those in Box 242 even though the numbering system does not.

Dawn: 2nd(?) typescript (chaps. I-XXXIV).
Box 244 Folder 9676-9698
Dawn: note from Kathryn Sayre, circa 1931.
Box 244 Folder 9699
Dawn: sample pages, typeset.
Box 245 Folder 9700
Dawn: book jacket and 2 book dummies.
Box 245 Folder 9701
Dawn: 1st bound copy.
Box 245 Folder 9702
Dawn: French translation (chaps. 17-23 and 3 unnumbered).
Box 245 Folder 9703-9705
Dawn: French translation (unnumbered chaps.).
Box 245 Folder 9706-9710
Dawn: new French translation (chaps. I-XXIX), 1935.
Box 245 Folder 9711-9721
Tragic America: plan(s) of book and partial outline of topics to be covered.
Box 246 Folder 9722
Tragic America: "Preface".
Box 246 Folder 9723
Tragic America: "As America Looks Now" ("The American Scene").
Box 246 Folder 9724
Tragic America: "I Visit an Actual Mill Town" [part of "Present Day Living Conditions for Many"].
Box 246 Folder 9725
Tragic America: "Exploitation—Rule by Force" ("Exploitation—the American Rule by Force").
Box 246 Folder 9726
Tragic America: "Our Banks and Corporations as Government (A)" (version 1).
Box 246 Folder 9727-9728
Tragic America: "Our Banks and Corporations as Government (A)" (versions 2 and 3).
Box 246 Folder 9729-9730
Tragic America: "Our Banks and Corporations as Government (B)".
Box 246 Folder 9731
Tragic America: "The Profits of Our American Railways from Their Inertia (A)" ("Our American Railways--Their Profits and Greed").
Box 246 Folder 9732
Tragic America: "The Profits of Our American Railway from Their Inertia (B)" ("Our American Railways—Their Profits and Greed").
Box 246 Folder 9733
Tragic America: "Government Operation of the Express Companies for Private Profit".
Box 246 Folder 9734
Tragic America: "The Supreme Court as a Corporation Service Station" ("The Supreme Court as a Corporation-Minded Institution").
Box 246 Folder 9735
Tragic America: "The Constitution as a Scrap of Paper".
Box 246 Folder 9736
Tragic America: "The Position of Labor".
Box 246 Folder 9737
Tragic America: "The Growth of Police Power".
Box 246 Folder 9738
Tragic America: "Abuse to the Individual" ("The Abuse of the Individual") (version 1).
Box 246 Folder 9739-9740
Tragic America: "Abuse to the Individual" 9"The Abuse of the Individual") (version 2).
Box 246 Folder 9741
Tragic America: "Charity and Wealth in America" (version 1).
Box 246 Folder 9742
Tragic America: "Charity and Wealth in America" (version 2).
Box 246 Folder 9743-9744
Tragic America: "Crime and Why".
Box 246 Folder 9745
Tragic America: "Why the Ballot?".
Box 246 Folder 9746
Tragic America: "Why Government Ownership?".
Box 246 Folder 9747
Tragic America: "Analysis of Statecraft for the Future" ("Suggestions toward a New Statecraft").
Box 246 Folder 9748-9749
Tragic America: "What the Meaning of Education Should Be".
Box 246 Folder 9750
Tragic America: correspondence re "A Sample Trust".
Box 246 Folder 9751

Extra chap. meant for 2nd edition of Tragic America.

Tragic America: "A Sample Trust".
Box 246 Folder 9752-9754

Chapter not used in book, written by Kathryn Sayre.

Tragic America: "A Sample Trust".
Box 246 Folder 9755

By Kathryn Sayre, edited by Anna Tatum (typescript); xerox of Tatum letter.

Tragic America: "A Sample Trust".
Box 246 Folder 9756

By Kathryn Sayre, 11 Jan. 1933, with comments by Evelyn Light (typescript).

Tragic America: typesetting copy.
Box 247 Folder 9757-9781
Tragic America: translator's note comparing American wages with American living costs.
Box 247 Folder 9782
Tragic America: corrections to be made in future printings.
Box 247 Folder 9783
Tragic America: corrections sent to TD by Kathryn Sayre.
Box 247 Folder 9784
Tragic America: book jackets.
Box 247 Folder 9785
Tragic America: miscellaneous.
Box 247 Folder 9786

See also Box 484, folder 14681, for excerpts of Tragic America in Italian in Ottobre.

Tragic America: translation into French of chap. 20 ("Who Owns America?") and chap. 21 ("Is America Dominant?").
Box 247 Folder 9787
Tragic America: carbon of typesetting copy.
Box 248 Folder 9788-9808
Tragic America: 1st galley proofs, revised.
Box 249 Folder 9809
Tragic America: 1st galley proofs with corrections.
Box 249 Folder 9810
Tragic America: 2nd galley proofs.
Box 249 Folder 9811
Tragic America: 2nd galley proofs with corrections.
Box 249 Folder 9812
Tragic America: page proofs.
Box 250 Folder 9813