Main content

Clement and Sophie Winston papers


Held at: University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts [Contact Us]3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6206

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Overview and metadata sections

Clement Winston (1902-1986) and Sophie Zion (1902-1986) both spent their youth and married in Philadelphia, but spent most of their lives together in Washington, District of Columbia. Both Clement and Sophie were Jewish, and active within their religious community.

Clement Winston was born (with the name Kalman "Kutze" Weinstein) on February 14, 1902, in the central Ukrainian city of Byelaya Tserkov, then a part of Russia. At the time of his birth, Winston's parents Jacob (Yacov Yosif) Weinstein, and Esther (Feige) Weinstein were in the process of emigrating from Russia with their two other children, Joseph ("Zalman") and Samuel (Shmuel). Esther and her sons Joseph, Samuel, and Kalman (later Clement) finally joined Jacob Weinstein, who was employed as a tailor in a clothing factory, in Philadelphia in 1905. The family's youngest child, Lena, was born in 1908.

Clement attended Pennsylvania State University where he studied industrial engineering and graduated in 1923. He went on to earn a BS in education (1927), a masters in mathematics (1928), and a doctoral degree in mathematics (1929) from the University of Pennsylvania. He served as an instructor in math at the University of Pennsylvania from 1927 to 1933 and for the National Recovery Administration from 1933 to 1934. From 1935 to 1937, he worked as chief of the statistician section for a Works Progress Administration National Research Project in Philadelphia before moving to the National Resources Board from 1937 to 1938. From 1938 to 1942, Winston was employed by the Railroad Retirement Board and from 1942 to 1945, he served as an industrial analyst with the War Production Board. Clement spent the majority of his career (1945 to 1962) as an economist at the Office of Business Economics at the United States Bureau of the Budget, serving as chief of the Consumption and Markets section of the Business Structure Division. In 1962, he moved to the Office of Statistical Standards (or the Statistical Standards Division) where he worked on prices, price indexes and consumer expenditure surveys; statistical methodology; and retail and wholesale trade; retiring in January 1968. From 1947 until at least 1967, he also served as a lecturer in statistics at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. He and Sophie Zion married in Philadelphia in 1934.

Sophie Zion was born in Philadelphia on January 10, 1902, the oldest child of Harry and Rose Zion. According to the 1920 census, Sophie was employed as a salesgirl at a department store, but had not gone to school. During the Second World War, Sophie volunteered as an art instructor with the American Red Cross. Sophie's youngest sister, Mollie B. Zion (February 27, 1915–August 21, 2007), who features considerably in the correspondence of this collection, was employed for many years as an administrative assistant at the Securities and Exchange Commission, beginning in 1955.

This collection documents Clement and Sophie Winston's personal and professional lives. The bulk of the material appears to have been created by Clement Winston; however, there is a significant portion of material generated by Sophie Winston and her sister, Mollie B. Zion. In some cases, it is difficult to ascertain the creator of material; and because Clement's professional and personal worlds appear to have been largely intertwined, the series designations are not completely rigid and there is a certain degree of overlap in materials between series (for example, copies of poems enclosed in some letters, or sketches in a few of the notebooks).

The collection is arranged in seven series: I. Academic and professional writings; II. Creative writing, music, and drawings; III. Poetry; IV. Correspondence; V. Notes, notebooks, ephemera, and clippings; VI. Household accounts; and VII. Personal papers. Descriptions of the contents of each series are located at the series level.

In addition to detailing the day-to-day life of a middle-class family in Washington, DC, this collection provides significant documentation on the mid-century American economy, both through Clement Winston's writings via the Office of Business Economics and the couple's meticulous records of their household finances, which cover, to varying degrees, the 1920s to the 1980s. Moreover, the collection provides a glimpse into this Jewish family's close relationships to both immediate and extended family, as they maintained pride in their culture in a time of "religious prejudice," (box 7, folder 9). Finally, Winston's creativity is abundantly evident through his poetry, musicals, sketches, doodles, and musical compositions; and the topics of his creative outlets and his humor very much reflect the world in which he lived.

Gifts of Steven Rothman, 2008 and 2017.

University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Finding Aid Author
Rive Cadwallader
Finding Aid Date
2018 May 10
Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research use.

Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may exist. For most library holdings, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania do not hold copyright. It is the responsibility of the requester to seek permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce material from the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Collection Inventory

Request to View Materials

Materials can be requested by first logging in to Aeon. Then, click on the ADD button next to any containers you wish to request. When complete, click the Request button.

Request item to view

Scope and Contents

This series contains works by Clement Winston, Sophie Winston, Mollie Zion, and several of Clement Winston's colleagues and fellow mathematicians, arranged alphabetically by author. The bulk of the writings were authored or co-authored by Clement Winston.

Writings by Clement's colleagues can be found in box 1, folders 1 and 2 and include papers authored by Leonard Carlitz, I. Lattman, Joseph Lehner, J. L. Shereshefsky, James Alexander Shohat, and Sylvia Steckler. These writings focus on the fields of medicine, mathematics and chemical physics and most are inscribed to Clement Winston. There are various papers written by the mathematician James Alexander Shohat, with whom Clement co-wrote "On mechanical quadratures," published in the Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo in 1934 (individual copies of this paper and of the entire 1934 issue of the Rendiconti are included in box 1, folders 3 and 4). Researchers will also find several government publications, including a staff roster, a copy of the 1952 report "Markets after the Defense Expansion," and an issue of the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

Winston's writings on the subject of mathematics include "On Mechanical Quadratures Formulae Involving the Classical Orthogonal Polynomials," published in Annals of Mathematics in 1934. A draft of this paper, along with draft copies of "To find limits for the zeros of Hermite Polynomials" and "Correlation of Time Series" (unsigned, but presumably by Winston) are also included. During his time at the Bureau of the Budget, Winston contributed to Survey of Current Business, a publication of the Department of Commerce. Nineteen full issues featuring articles written or co-written by Winston and several reprinted articles are included, as well as two copies of the Department's Current Economic Analyses for Retail Business, with an article co-written by Winston. Additional examples of Clement Winston's writings in economics include an article in Dun's Review, two copies of textbook reviews submitted to SIAM Review, a transcription of a lecture on "long range projections" delivered at an economic analysis seminar, and a copy of Food Topics, in which Winston is quoted.

The "Report on Art Division of Red Cross Arts and Skills Corps Program at Walter Reed General Hospital Convalescent Section" by Sophie Z. Winston (a volunteer art instructor with the program) describes the participants, operations and results of the program between January 1944 and January 1946. The speech by Mollie B. Zion discusses the history and mission of the Securities and Exchange Commission, where she was employed as an administrative assistant.

Carlitz, Leonard, I. Lattman, Joseph Lehner, J. L. Shereshefsky, and Sylvia Steckler, eight papers in various publications regarding mathematics, medicine, and science , 1931-1969.
Box 1 Folder 1
Food Topics, volume 2, number 12, 1947 June.
Drawer 107 Folder unknown container
Shohat, J.A., fourteen papers in various publications regarding mathematics, 1929-1947.
Box 1 Folder 2
United States, Department of Commerce, report: "Markets after the Defense Expansion", 1952.
Box 1 Folder 12
United States, Executive Office of the President, Bureau of the Budget: professional staff roster of the Bureau of the Budget, 1967 June.
Box 1 Folder 12
"Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Volume 3, Number 33", 1967 August 21.
Box 1 Folder 12
Winston, Clement and J. Shohat, "On mechanical quadratures" in Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo (4 copies), 1933.
Box 1 Folder 3
Winston, Clement, articles in Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo tomo LVIII, Anno 1934- A. XII, 1934.
Box 1 Folder 4
Winston, Clement, "On Mechanical Quadratures Formulae Involving the Classical Orthogonal Polynomials" published in Annals of Mathematics (6 copies), 1934.
Box 1 Folder 5
Winston, Clement, proofs of three academic papers ("To find limits for the zeros of Hermite Polynomials," "Correlation of the Time Series," and "On Mechanical Quadratures Formulae Involving the Classical Orthogonal Polynomials"), undated.
Box 1 Folder 6
Winston, Clement, articles in full issues of Survey of Current Business, including "Sensitivity of State Income Payments to Nations Totals," "Retail Sales and Consumer Income," "Income Sensitivity of Consumer Expenditures," "Pattern of Buying of Consumer Goods," and "Analysis of Long-Term Markets," with Mabel A. Smith; "Regional Patterns of Department Store Sales," "Postwar Regional Department Store Sales Patterns," and "Inventory Turn-Over in Retail Trade" with Marie L. Puglisi; "Pattern of Chain Store Sales in Retail Distribution" with Reba L. Osborne; "The Postwar Furniture Market and the Factors Determining Demand" and "Recent Trends in Retail Trade" with Walter Jacobs; "Consumer Expenditure-Income Patterns" with Louis J. Paradiso; "Regional Trends in Retail Trade" with Marie P. Herzberg; "Consumer Market Developments" with Alan Odendahl;" "Sales Inventory Position of Retailers;" "Consumer Buying--A Review of Recent Developments;" and "Retail Trade and Use of Services: Regional Patterns of Consumer Purchasing" , 1946-1952.
Box 1 Folder 7-9
Winston, Clement, reprints of articles by C. Winston published in Survey of Current Business with Walter Jacobs, Reba L. Osborne, Marie L. Puglisi, and Mabel A. Smith (also represented in folders 7-9), 1946-1959.
Box 1 Folder 10
Winston, Clement, bound volumes of reprints from Survey of Current Business, 1947, 1949.
Box 1 Folder 10
Winston, Clement and Marie L. Puglisi, "Regional Patterns of Department Store Sales" in Current Economic Analyses for Retail Business, U.S. Department of Commerce (2 copies), 1946 October.
Box 1 Folder 11
Winston, Clement and Mabel A. Smith, "Retail Sales and Consumer Income," Dun's Review, 1949 April.
Box 1 Folder 12
Winston, Clement, transcript of lecture "Long Range Projections" delivered at an economic analysis seminar, June 5, 1959.
Box 1 Folder 13
Winston, Clement, reviews of Reading in Linear Programming by S. Vagda and Management Models and Industrial Applications of Linear Programming, Volume 1 by Charnes and Cooper submitted to SIAM Review, 1959, 1962.
Box 1 Folder 13
Winston, Sophie Z., "Report on Art Division of Red Cross Arts and Skills Corps Program at Walter Reed General Hospital", 1946 January 14.
Box 1 Folder 13
Zion, Mollie B., address delivered on the Securities and Exchange Commission, 1962 April 23.
Box 1 Folder 13

Scope and Contents

This series consists of creative writing, songs, and drawings by Clement Winston. Both the fictional short stories ("Halloween" and "The Mysterious Buns") and the non-fictional stories (such as the travel impressions, and other pieces which describe amusing or inspiring episodes from everyday life) are written in a casual, conversational style. The essays on Greek words are short, informative discussions of the history, etymology and cultural meanings of words like 'echo,' 'drama,' and 'idea.' "We Are the O.B.E." is a six act musical comedy about the Office of Business Economics. Most of the musical notation in box 2, folder 2 is untitled, though some songs have accompanying lyrics. The several "Chanukah Carols," by contrast, are generally printed with musical notation, Yiddish lyrics, transliterated Yiddish lyrics, English lyrics and a glossary of Yiddish words. (The copyright material for the 1982 "Chanukah Song" can be found in Series VII. Personal papers). Most of the doodles and drawings are very rough pencil sketches on scraps of paper, though some-–particularly those meant to decorate poems and cards--have a more finished quality. Many of the documents in this series, whether stories, songs or drawings, are in multiple copies.

Anecdotal short stories, undated.
Box 1 Folder 15
Short essays on ancient Greek words, 1963, undated.
Box 1 Folder 15
Travel "impressions", 1956, undated.
Box 1 Folder 15
"Halloween," short story copies and drafts, undated.
Box 1 Folder 16
"The Mysterious Buns," short story, 1920.
Box 1 Folder 17
"We Are the O.B.E.: An Extravaganza in 6 Scenes," musical play, undated.
Box 2 Folder 1
Songs and musical compositions, undated.
Box 2 Folder 2
"Chanukah Carols," lyrics and music to original, circa 1964-1984.
Box 2 Folder 3
Doodles and drawings, circa 1960-1980.
Box 2 Folder 4-5

Scope and Contents

Almost all of the poems in this series are present in multiple iterations, which lends some insight into Winston's creative process. Winston typically shared his poetry widely with friends, so there are photocopied and hand-copied versions of his verse (sometimes individually inscribed) in addition to numerous drafts. Winston organized his poems in a number of ways: two typed compilations, "Fair Copies" manuscript compilation, and manuscript compilations. All four are relatively formal compilations of poems, of which the "Manuscript compilation" is the most extensive. These compilations overlap considerably, but are not identical to each other. While they are not fully representative of the range of poems in found in "Drafts and copies" (that is, some poems found in "Drafts and copies" are not included in the compilations, and vice versa), they nevertheless accurately reflect the bulk of Winston's oeuvre. Thematically, much of this poetic work relates to nature (such as poems about animals or seasons), love, holidays (including annual New Year's and Valentine's Day poems) and current events. Winston also wrote many poems to, or about, his acquaintances, including poems celebrating the retirements of colleagues, or the birthdays of friends and family. In tone, the poems are generally lighthearted and often comical, though Winston's later work is somewhat more introspective. There are also a few incomplete indices of the poems, as well as numerous lists of individuals to whom specific poems were sent.

Four issues of Zantia, a magazine dedicated to "stories and poems by the over-sixty" and featuring some of Clement's verse, comprise the final file in this series.

Typed compilation, I, undated.
Box 2 Folder 6
Typed compilation, II (with cover), undated.
Box 2 Folder 7
"Fair Copies" manuscript compilation, 1952-1969.
Box 2 Folder 8
Manuscript compilation, 1950-1975.
Box 2 Folder 9-17
Drafts and copies, 1935-1953.
Box 2 Folder 18-20
Drafts and copies, 1953-1978.
Box 3 Folder 1-16
Drafts and copies, 1979-1985, undated.
Box 4 Folder 1-6
Indices and mailing lists, circa 1970-1985.
Box 4 Folder 7
Clement Winston poems, published in Zantia magazine ("Travel is Broadening," "The Singing Crow," "I Fall Asleep at Concerts," and "Snowflakes and Teardrops"), 1978-1979.
Box 1 Folder 14

Scope and Contents

Series IV. Correspondence includes letters and cards and drafts of letters (largely written by Clement Winston). It is frequently difficult to ascertain the author and/or intended recipient of the letters and card, and therefore, they are arranged in chronological order. Researchers will find a combination of letters received by Clement and Sophie Winston, letters sent by Clement and Sophie to Mollie Zion, and birthday and Valentine's Day cards exchanged between Clement, Sophie and Mollie. While most of the letters are family letters, there are letters between Clement and the editors of various literary magazines, as well as a few letters documenting day-to-day business with stores, etc. Much of the correspondence between Clement, Sophie and Mollie employs a set of nicknames: Sophie is "Pooh," Mollie is "Eeyore" or "Moops," and Clement is "Rabbit" or his occasional pen name, "Bigelow B. Baygel."

Clement (and, to a lesser degree, Sophie) often composed long letters which they copied and sent to acquaintances en masse. The drafts of these letters and of their more personal correspondence make up the remainder of this series. These drafts range from loosely written and visibly revised notes to polished reports similar to the anecdotal short stories found in in Series II. Some of the letters from 1952 and 1953 (drafted, sent and received) pertain to Clement's emotionally intense experiences of his hearing before the Loyalty Board for the Department of Commerce.

Letters and cards, 1921-1985, undated.
Box 4 Folder 8-14
Drafts of letters (largely from Clement Winston), 1937-1979.
Box 4 Folder 15-17
Drafts of letters (largely from Clement Winston), 1980-1982, undated.
Box 5 Folder 1-5

Scope and Contents

This series is mostly composed of notebooks kept by Clement Winston. These pocket-sized booklets are filled with notes of various descriptions: diary entries, funny snippets of conversation, addresses, poems, lists of expenses and budget calculations, stories, reminders, trip itineraries and other information. Tucked into most of the notebooks are loose papers and ephemera, such as receipts, tickets, sketches, letters, newspaper clippings, calendar leaves, postage stamps, business cards, and Winston's eccentric collection of bathroom tissue and toilet paper wrappers which he amassed on his international travels. The larger of the loose papers have been removed from the pages of the notebooks but kept alongside the volume in which they were originally enclosed. The relatively minimal loose notes in box 6, folder 3 are similar in their content to the notebooks, but also contain some pages of mathematical calculations. Subsequent folders of academic notes appear to be partially drawn from lecture material and partially Winston's original work. The economics notes, from lectures delivered by Charles Jordan, a professor at the University of Budapest, are in French. The last three folders in this series contain additional fliers, event programs, clippings and ephemera. Of particular interest may be the ephemera relating to Winston's retirement in 1968, for which colleagues wrote poems in the Winston-style (box 6, folder 8).

Address book, circa 1958-1963.
Box 5 Folder 6
Notebooks, 1922, 1942-1965.
Box 5 Folder 7-22
Notebooks, 1964-1966, 1977.
Box 6 Folder 1-2
Loose and miscellaneous notes, 1979, undated.
Box 6 Folder 3
Bound volume of calculus notes, circa 1930.
Box 6 Folder 4
Bound volume of notes on polynomials, circa 1932.
Box 6 Folder 5
Unbound lecture notes on economics and art history, 1938-1947, circa 1935.
Box 6 Folder 6
Programs from conferences of the American Mathematical Society, Harvard University Tercentenary, and the Mathematical Association of America, 1936.
Box 6 Folder 7
Fliers, event programs and other ephemera (includes material relating to Clement Winston's retirement in January 1968, circa 1968-1978, undated.
Box 6 Folder 8
Newspaper and magazine clippings, circa 1955-1972.
Box 6 Folder 9
Newspaper and magazine clippings, undated.
Drawer 107 Folder unknown container

Scope and Contents

For about fifty years, Clement and Sophie Winston kept meticulous records of their household finances. In box 6, folders 10-16, researchers will find account books that list the Winston's daily expenditures by item ("bedroom slippers," "ice cream," "movies," etc.). The expenses for each day are sorted into categories which, though they vary slightly from book to book, generally correspond to "household food;" "outside meals & lunches;" rent, insurance, and utilities such as gas, electric and telephone; clothing, clothing repairs and laundry; gifts and donations; bus fare, newspapers, and travel; and miscellaneous expenses. Unless self-explanatory by its categorical placement, each expense is specified with an annotation. The notation of expenses in these volumes is almost a type of diary-keeping, especially from January 1944 to September 1964 (box 6, folders 12-14) where entries are described in greatest detail.

Two of the account books contain some non-financial material. The first twenty pages of the account book for April 1936 to December 1943 feature sporadic diary entries written by Clement Winston between from November 1, 1923 and January 10, 1926. While not extensive, these pages provide an interesting glimpse of life in 1920s Philadelphia, and Winston's social circle at the time. The last section of the account book for July 1938 to October 1945 contains a meal plan (fourteen sets of breakfast, lunch and dinner menus) for diabetes management, and charts recording the results of urine glucose tests. The dates listed in the titles of these files refer only to the chronological span of the financial accounts. Since some of the books have non-financial material, like the diary and dietary information, the true date of the file may not exactly correspond to the date listed in its title.

The total monthly expenditures do not provide the various individual expenses incurred each day, but rather the total money spent each month. These totals are listed in categories like those of the preceding files, along with more specific groupings, like for cigarettes, library fees, and visits to the barber. The itemized annual expenditures are likewise listed by category, thus a page might, for example, list all of the cosmetics bought by Sophie Winston in the year 1974, with the date of purchase, product, and price. Because the itemized annual expenditures extend to 1990, at least the final portion of these records could not have been the work of either Sophie or Clement, and was perhaps maintained by Mollie Zion. As is the case with the notebooks in Series V, there are some loose papers enclosed in the account books.

Itemized daily expenditures, 1923-1926, 1936 April-1943 December.
Box 6 Folder 10
Itemized daily expenditures, 1938 July-1948 March.
Box 6 Folder 11
Itemized daily expenditures, 1944 January-1955 December.
Box 6 Folder 12
Itemized daily expenditures, 1956 January-1964 September, 1966.
Box 6 Folder 13-14
Itemized daily expenditures, 1964 October-1967 January.
Box 6 Folder 15-16
Total monthly expenditures by category (bound), 1936 March - 1951 February.
Box 6 Folder 17
Total monthly expenditures by category (unbound), 1938, 1943-1950.
Box 7 Folder 1
Itemized annual expenditures by category (unbound), 1971-1990.
Box 7 Folder 2-3
Total annual expenditures by category (unbound), 1972-1979.
Box 7 Folder 5
Income, social security, gifts and donations, 1973-1979.
Box 7 Folder 4
Miscellaneous receipts and financial accounts (unbound), 1966-1987, undated.
Box 7 Folder 5

Scope and Contents

The final series in this collection contains personal papers (mostly legal documents) relating to Clement and Sophie Winston, and some of their relatives. Researchers will find documents pertaining to Rose Zion's purchase of, and mortgage for, a house at 1622 South Orkney Street in Philadelphia; Rose's accident disability certificate; and the wedding certificate from her marriage to Harry Zion. Mollie Zion's passport and birth certificate; Sophie Zion Winston's birth certificate; and Clement's citizenship certificate, social security card and handwritten bar mitzvah certification are also found in this series. In 1931, Clement filed a legal petition to change his last name from Weinstein to Winston. Around 1938, he began the process of citizenship application, which was complicated by the fact that he did not have his birth certificate. Documents relating to Winston's name change, birth record and citizenship application - including legal certificates, correspondence, census records and Winston's 1903 immigration papers - are included in box 7, folder 8. Subsequent folders include copies of the last will and testament of Clement and Sophie Winston, affidavits by Clement Winston affirming the name change of his sister-in-law and national loyalty of George Perazich, and the copyright registration filed by Clement Winston for the words and music of the "Chanukah Song." The final file in the series contains membership certificates granted to Clement by several societies, two awards recognizing Sophie's volunteer service with the American National Red Cross during the Second World War, and an honorable mention award given to Sophie for her studies at the Corcoran School of Art.

Documentation of the purchase and sale of a property by Rose Zion, 1921.
Drawer 107 Folder unknown container
Documentation of the purchase and sale of a property by Rose Zion, 1921, 1945-1947.
Box 7 Folder 6
Accident disability certificate provided to Rose Zion by Independent Order Brith Shalom, 1915 January 1.
Box 7 Folder 7
Personal documents including certificates of birth, marriage and citizenship, 1945-1987, undated.
Box 7 Folder 7
Notes, documents and correspondence pertaining to the name change, birth record and citizenship application of Clement Winston, 1903-1945, undated.
Box 7 Folder 8
Copies of the last will and testaments of Clement and Sophie Winston, 1977 July 12.
Box 7 Folder 9
Copies of two affidavits provided by Clement Winston, 1967, 1968.
Box 7 Folder 9
Copyright for "Chanukah Song" by Clement Winston, 1984 January.
Box 7 Folder 9
Awards and society membership certificates granted to Clement and Sophie Winston, 1927-1969.
Box 7 Folder 10
Award to Sophie Winston from the Corcoran Gallery of Art for honorable mention in landscape class, 1944 May 26.
Drawer 107 Folder unknown container

Print, Suggest