Horace Champney Papers
Held at: Swarthmore College Peace Collection [Contact Us]500 College Avenue, Swarthmore 19081-1399
This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.
Overview and metadata sections
Horace Champney was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1905, the son of Adeline Champney and Fred Schulder. His parents described themselves as "philosophical anarchists," and had chosen not to marry. Horace was the eldest of three children. Champney entered Antioch College in 1922, and graduated in 1932, later receiving a Ph.D. in psychology from Ohio State University. He joined the Fels Research Institute staff in 1936 as a psychologist, and worked there for several years. Champney specialized in the field of child development, concentrating on the role of parent behavior and its efforts at molding the personality of children. During World War II, he counseled conscientious objectors as part of his radical pacifism. Champney ceased to work as a psychologist around 1949, when he joined the Antioch Press as a printer and editor.
Champney continued his many peace and justice activities after the war. He was a founder of The Peacemakers Movement, a group of people who came together in 1948 in Chicago to develop a movement of disciplined and revolutionary pacifist activity. The main points of their program included social and economic revolution; commitment to nonviolence; refusal to perform war work, pay taxes for war, or register for the draft; and the establishment of Peacemaker-type communities. Champney was also involved with the civil rights struggles of the 1960s, and was instrumental in helping desegregate restaurants and barbershops in Yellow Springs, Ohio. One of Champney's means of expressing personal protest was through fasting. He participated in a Christmas Vigil and Fast for Peace in December 1950, a fast in conjunction with Lee Stern (a staff member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation); in 1965 to protest U.S. policy in Vietnam; and the Fast for Life movements in 1972 and 1983.
It was with the escalation of American involvement in Vietnam that Champney's most intense period of peace activism began. He is generally credited with originating the idea of sending a "boatload of Quakers" to take medical supplies to North Vietnam. His idea came to fruition in 1966, when A Quaker Action Group issued a call for volunteers. Many problems and uncertainties lay ahead: the voyage would be dangerous because of American bombing and mining of North Vietnamese harbors; U.S. officials would certainly not issue the appropriate documents, leaving the crew members in a precarious legal situation; and their reception by the North Vietnamese was by no means assured. Nevertheless, Champney volunteered. He was 61 years old at the time, had no sailing experience, and (in his own words) was not in very good physical shape. However, he was accepted as a crew member of the yacht Phoenix along with Betty Boardman, Phillip Drath, Bob Eaton, and Ivan Massar, under the leadership of captain Earle Reynolds.
The Phoenix sailed in March 1967, visiting Hiroshima and Hong Kong before proceeding to North Vietnam. They were received by the North Vietnamese, first with caution, then with increased warmth. They presented the medical supplies they had brought, and viewed the havoc caused by American bombing. Their visit generated wide media coverage in the United States and Canada, Europe, and Japan. After their return to the United States, Champney and other members of the crew embarked on speaking tours to report on what they had seen. They were well-received, especially on college campuses. Yet they were frustrated by the seeming insensitivity of the American public to the carnage in Vietnam. Champney's Phoenix ship-mate Betty Boardman and the Wisconsin Women for Peace had begun a vigil at the White House. Champney joined them on July 1, 1969, and then began a fast and vigil of his own.
During the summer and autumn of that year Champney tried to convey his message to passers-by at the gates of the White House; he composed many appeals to fellow members in the peace movement; and wrote a letter each week to President Nixon, asking for an appointment (which was never granted). Forced by family circumstances and uncertain health to return to Yellow Springs, Champney continued to encourage Quakers and other peacemakers to keep up pressure on the government by means of White House vigils. He also continued his support of draft resisters and conscientious objectors, especially those who were imprisoned for their beliefs.
War tax resistance and tax refusal were continuing concerns of Champney from about 1950 until his death. He and his fourth wife, Beulah, refused to pay part or all of their taxes for several years. Champney had joined the Society of Friends in 1949, becoming an active member of the Yellow Springs (Ohio) Monthly Meeting. He continued his interest in A Quaker Action Group for many years after the Phoenix voyage. He was also involved with the American Friends Service Committee, the Committee for Nonviolent Action, and the Fellowship of Reconciliation. Champney continued to follow the affairs of Antioch College. Throughout his adult years, Champney believed in the efficacy of vitamins and a simple, healthy diet to improve and prolong life. He combined this with his efforts to reduce his standard of living as a protest against American materialism and need to "colonize" other nations to sustain this way of life. Horace Champney died on August 31, 1990, in Yellow Springs, Ohio.
The papers of Horace Champney were received in little discernable order. The correspondence was sorted and 64 separate correspondents (individuals and organizations) were identified. Material in these folders includes background material as well as correspondence. Miscellaneous correspondence follows, in chronological order. Correspondence was divided into general (Series B) and family (Series C). Most of the family correspondence is personal except for HC's correspondence with his son Ken Champney, who worked closely with him in many of his public activities.
Box 6a, which contains family correspondence, is restricted until 2019. No one may view this material until the restrictions have been lifted.
About one-third of the material pertaining to A Quaker Action Group was removed, as it had no relation to HC or his activities, other than the fact that he was on AQAG's advisory council. These papers will be used to fill in the Peace Collection's holdings of the records of AQAG (DG 074).
Subject material, such as the Phoenix mission and the Washington White House vigil, is cross-indexed to major correspondence in the checklist.
The Swarthmore College Peace Collection is the official repository for these papers.
Gift of Ken and Peg Champney, 1993 [Acc. 93A-025], 1997 [Acc. 97A-062]; Irwin Abrams, 1996[Acc. 96A-067]
For the catalog record for this collection and to find materials on similar topics, search the library's online catalog.
Processed by Barbara Addison, October 1993; this version of the finding aid by Wendy E. Chmielewski, July 2009.
- A Quaker Action Group
- American Friends Service Committee
- Canadian Friends Service Committee
- Fellowship of Reconciliation (U.S.)
- Peacemaker Movement
- Phoenix (Yacht)
- Pacifists -- United States -- History -- Sources
- Quakers -- United States -- History -- Sources
- Quakers -- Ohio -- Yellow Springs -- History -- Sources
- Psychologists -- United States -- History -- Sources
- War tax resistance -- United States -- History -- Sources
- Nonviolence -- United States -- History -- Sources
- Vietnam War, 1961-1975 -- Protest movements -- United States -- Sources
- Vietnam War, 1961-1975 -- Conscientious Objectors -- United States -- Sources
- Vietnam War, 1961-1975 -- Draft resisters -- United States -- Sources
- Government, Resistance to -- United States -- History -- Sources
- Swarthmore College Peace Collection
- Access Restrictions
The collection is open for research use.
All or part of this collection is stored off-site. Contact Swarthmore College Peace Collection staff at firstname.lastname@example.org at least two weeks in advance of visit to request boxes.
- Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendents, as stipulated by United States copyright law. The Champney heirs retain copyright and can deny persmission to use materials in publications.
- Use Restrictions
[restricted until 2019]
(periodical with contributions from and edited by HC while at Antioch College)
[see also correspondence: Bruce Ashley, DeCourcey Squire, Marjorie Swann]
[see also correspondence: Lee Stern]
(1959-1961, 1969, undated)
[see also correspondence: Ruth Bates, Beulah Champney, Richard Nixon]
[see also correspondence: Bruce Ashley, DeCourcey Squire, Marjorie Swann]
[handwritten] [black binding]
[handwritten] [red binding]
[4 folders], [never completed]