Held at: Princeton University Library: Manuscripts Division [Contact Us]
This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Princeton University Library: Manuscripts Division. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.
Overview and metadata sections
In 1669 Crete came under Ottoman Turkish occupation. However, for many years Greece and the Ottoman Turkish Empire fought bitter wars for the control of Crete, with massacres committed by both sides. An insurrection in Crete in 1896-1897 led to large-scale violence between Muslims and Christians, a proclamation by the rebels of union with Greece, and the invasion of the island by a Greek force (Feb. 1897). Greece went to war against the Ottomans (April 1897) but was defeated and had to ask for the Great Powers (Britain, France, Italy, and Russia) for intervention to rescue it from Ottoman advances into its territory. The crisis set in motion the flight of thousands of Muslim refugees from Crete and Greece to western Anatolia. The Greeks were obliged to recall their troops from Crete and to accept in advance the decisions of the powers. An armistice was arranged (May 19) and a peace settlement reached (Sept. 18).The settlement established autonomy for Crete under European control, and an independent Cretan Republic, headed by Prince George of Greece, was founded with only symbolic Ottoman presence. Greece finally annexed Crete during the First Balkan War in 1912-1913. The Commission for Refugee Women and Children from Crete was established to aid refugees of the Cretan War of Independence.
The collection consists of material relating to the relief of refugees of the Cretan War of Independence. Included are letters of donations, invoices, telegrams, bills, bank drafts and statements, and receipts. Many of the letters and documents, addressed to Mrs. Sofia Mavro who seems to have been involved in the relief efforts for the refugees in Crete, are about sending money to help with the victims of the Cretan War of Independence, especially women and children. Most of the documents are in Greek; however, there are some in French, Italian, and one in English addressed to the King of Greece. Correspondents include Bishop (?) Eumenios of Crete, Queen Olga of Greece, and several Greek consulates around the world.
Acquired from Petros Vergos in 2007 with matching funds provided by the Program in Hellenic Studies with the support of the Stanley J. Seeger Hellenic Fund (AM2007-88).
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Folder inventory added by Nicholas Williams '2015 in 2012.
No appraisal information is available.
- Diplomatic and consular service, Greek -- 19th century
- Massacres -- Greece -- Crete -- History -- Sources
- Refugees -- Greece -- Crete -- History -- Sources
- Manuscripts Division
- Finding Aid Date
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