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Emil Doernenburg collection of First World War ephemera


Held at: German Society of Pennsylvania: Joseph P. Horner Memorial Library [Contact Us]611 Spring Garden Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19123

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the German Society of Pennsylvania: Joseph P. Horner Memorial Library. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Overview and metadata sections

Emil Doernenburg was born in Langenberg, Westphalia, in 1880. He studied in Berlin and Bonn, in the fields of German language and literature, and English language and literature. He emigrated to the United States in 1903. Around the same time, either just before or after his emigration, Doernenburg married Elfriede König, who was also born in Germany. The couple had two daughters, Elsie and Isolde. Emil Doernenburg was naturalized as an American citizen in 1908.

It is not known whether or not Doernenburg obtained a degree in Germany; however, after his arrival in the United States he pursued further studies in German literature, completing his Master's in 1908, at Northwestern University, and his Ph.D. in 1919, at the University of Pennsylvania.

In 1911 Doernenburg was appointed assistant professor of German at Ohio University, where he remained until 1917, advancing to the rank of professor. In 1918 he was forced to resign when German was dropped from the curriculum due to the anti-German feelings of the times. After leaving Ohio he and his family lived for a short time in Washington, D.C. In 1919 they moved to Philadelphia, where Emil Doernenburg assumed a position as professor of German at the University of Pennsylvania. He remained there until 1930, and then taught at La Salle College (today known as La Salle University), from 1931 to 1933. Aside from his academic work Doernenburg was also a published poet, writing in German.

Doernenburg joined the German Society of Pennsylvania in either 1919 or 1920. In 1920-1921 he served on the Library Committee; and in 1923-1924 he served as the chair of the Archive Committee. The latter committee collected and preserved materials documenting German-American history and culture, forming what later became known as the library's German American Collection.

Emil Doernenburg died in Philadelphia in 1935.


Deutsches Literatur-Lexikon: biographisch-bibliographisches Handbuch. Begründet von Wilhelm Kosch. 3. Aufl. Bern: Francke Verlag, 1968-2010. 30 vols. Biographical entry on Emil Doernenburg, vol. 3, col. 408.

Thomas, Barry G. "Ohio University, the Department of Modern Languages : A Bicentennial History, 1804-2004." Published on the World Wide Web, Accessed August 17, 2012.
Ward, Robert E., A bio-bibliography of German-American writers, 1670-1970 (White Plains, N.Y.: Krauss International Publications, c1985). Biographical entry on Emil Doernenburg, p. 64.

The collection includes 66 items of printed ephemera related to the First World War, nearly all produced by Germans, dating from 1914 to 1920. The majority of the items date from the war period; all of these items either address military personnel or are related to the civilian war effort. Only seven items date from the postwar period (Series VI), including three items related to the Kapp Putsch. With the exception of two items, all of the items in the collection were produced either in Germany, or in places occupied by Germany during the war. The two exceptions are a flier addressed to German soldiers that, according to a handwritten note, was distributed from planes flying from France in 1916 (Item 2); and a broadside produced in postwar Danzig (Gdansk, Poland; Item 61).

Fliers, broadsides, and posters account for most of the items. Among items of more than one leaf are nine individual issues of newspapers (Series II), one pamphlet (Item 31), and two four-page leaflets (Items 33 and 44). Included are five numbers of a series of fliers that appeared in Dortmund under the title Eiserne Blätter (Items 38 to 43).

Approximately one third of the items were intended to address German soldiers or other military personnel, including general ephemera (Series I) and newspapers (Series II). The newspapers are mostly military publications, including several issues of the Liller Kriegszeitung, produced in Lille, France (Items 18-21), three of them with an illustrated supplement; and one newspaper produced in a German prisoner-of-war camp in Scottland (Item 16). One item is a newspaper for soldiers published by the Lutheran Church in Schleswig-Holstein (Item 11).

Other items specific to a certain geographic location include nine items related to German-occupied territories (Series III), some of them public notices for posting in Libau (Leipaja, Latvia; Items 25-28), in German and Latvian; and in Brussels (Items 29 and 30), in German, Dutch (Flemish) and French. There are also nine items intended for display or use in Hamburg (Items 1, 53, 54, 57, 59, 62-64), including two related to the Hamburg branch of the German Red Cross (Items 1 and 59), two promoting the Hamburg Opfertag (day of sacrifice; Items 53 and 54), and a public notice concerning registration for the draft (Item 55). Related to other localties are a pastoral letter of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne and other German bishops, addressed to German soldiers returning to Cologne (Item 5); a broadside giving the text of Emperor Wilhelm's speech at the Krupp works in Essen (Item 49); a flier relating to jewel-and-gold buying week in the province of Posen (Item 50); and a poster/flier distributed by the Pfullingen branch of the Stuttgart-based company Stahl und Federer Aktiengesellschaft (Item 58).

The collection contains 17 items that are illustrated (nine using color to some extent), including three pictorial broadsides consisting of satirical color drawings in panels, with rhymed captions (Items 47, 48, 51); six posters (Items 53, 54, 57-59, 66); two illustrated broadsides (Items 36 and 45); two illustrated leaflets (Items 33 and 44); and four illustrated newspapers (Items 11, 17, 20, 21). One playbill has an artistically designed head (Item 24).

A mention of Emil Doernenburg's donation of this collection to the Archives of the German Society of Pennsylvania is found in the minutes of the GSP Archive Committee of 29 April 1922. No information could be found about how the collection came to be assembled. All of the items except one bear the personal stamp of Doernenburg; the one that does not (Item 66) was found together with the others and seemed alike enough in nature that it was presumed to have been part of the donation (it is from postwar Hamburg, as are several other items). Doernenburg traveled to Germany several times in the mid to late 1920s; however, no evidence could be found of his making a trip there between March 1920 (the latest dated item) and the time of the donation, in April 1922.

In the present processing, the items in the collection have been organized into broad categories, beginning with several groupings related to the German military: Series I and II comprise items that address military personnel, either in the form of broadsides, handbills, or fliers (Series I) or in newspapers by and/or for the military (Series II). Series III contains items related to the German military presence in German-occupied territories. Of the remaining wartime ephemera, Series IV gathers together items from late in the war that refer to and comment upon the peace overtures made by Germany and its allies (the Central Powers), especially the peace note of Emperor Wilhelm II of 12 December 1916. (Three additional items that refer to the peace offer are addressed specifically to German soldiers, and are found in Series I.) Series V comprises all other remaining wartime ephemera. Series VI contains items dating from the postwar period.

For reasons of clarity, given the variations in format, Series II to VI are subdivided into two or three general groupings according to size: smaller format; larger format; oversize.

The item descriptions include mention of illustrations, color printing or color paper, if present; and note author, artist, editor, publisher, and/or printer, to whatever extent attributions are given on the item itself. At the end of each description the number of leaves or pages is noted (in the case of items of only one leaf, the note "printed both sides" is added if applicable), followed by the dimensions in parentheses (height x width).

Gift of Emil Doernenburg, 1922

German Society of Pennsylvania: Joseph P. Horner Memorial Library
Finding Aid Author
Finding aid prepared by Violet Lutz
Finding Aid Date
The processing of this collection was made possible through generous funding from the Max Kade Foundation, as part of the grant project "Retrieval and Cataloging of the German-American Experience, 1918-1960."
Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research.

Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may apply. Please contact the German Society of Pennsylvania with requests for copying and for authorization to publish, quote or reproduce the material.

Collection Inventory

Item 1: Flier, Hamburg, 1915, "Weihnachtsgabe 1915, Hamburg ... für einen unserer braven Krieger bestimmt / Hamburgischer Landesverein vom Roten Kreuz, Vaterländischer Frauenhilfsverein, Die Liebesgabe der hamburgischen Detailkaufmannschaft, Zentralausschuss hamburgischer Bürgervereine." Apparently intended to accompany Christmas gifts to soldiers, from the German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz) of Hamburg and other charitable organizations. No imprint. Text framed with double border in red and black. 1 leaf (13.5 x 16.6 cm.).
Item 2: Flier, [France, 1916], "Deutsche Soldaten!" Refers to the entry of Rumania into the war. Pencilled note: "Durch Flieger bei uns abgeworfen, 29. Aug. 1916, aus Frankreich" (i.e. evidently thrown from planes flying from France, intended for German soldiers). No imprint. 1 leaf (13.6 x 22.2 cm.).
Item 3: Flier, 12 December 1916, "Soldaten! In dem Gefühl des Sieges . . . haben Ich und die Herrscher der treu verbündeten Staaten dem Feinde ein Friedensangebot gemacht." Text signed by German Emperor Wilhelm II (facsimile of signature), addressed to German soldiers, concerning Germany's peace offer. Mimeographed copy (?). No imprint. 1 leaf (33.6 x 20.6 cm.).
Item 4: Broadside, [1917], "Was der Feind will!" Refers to the peace offer of the German Emperor Wilhelm II on 12 December 1916, and details the terms set by the Entente powers in response, conveying that these are unacceptable. Concluding passage specifies address to German soldiers (Deutsche Soldaten!). Published by Kriegspresseamt, Berlin; printed by Lindendruckeri u. Verlags-Gesellschaft m.b.H., Berlin. Text in red and black, framed with a double border in red and black. 1 leaf (23.2 x 31.8 cm.).
Item 5: Broadside, Cologne, First Advent Sunday, 1918, "Willkommengruss an unsere tapferen Krieger. Die deutschen Erzbischöfe entbieten in nachstehenden Hirtenschreiben den heimkehrenden Kriegern herzlichen Willkommengruss." Text signed by Felix Kardinal von Hartmann, Archbishop of Cologne, and 16 other German archbishops or bishops. A pastoral letter addressed to German soldiers returning home. Printed by Germania, Berlin. With decorative border (leaves, German crosses). 1 leaf, printed both sides (30.5 x 22.5 cm.).
Items 6 and 7: Handbills, 1918. Series title: Merk's Kamerad! Deutsche Flugblätter herausgegeben für die Armee-Abtlg. C. In masthead: "Diese Flugblätter sind durch die Kompagnie-Führer vor der Truppe zu verlesen und zum Gegenstand der Besprechung zu machen. Verbreitung von Hand zu Hand geboten." No imprint. Two items as follows: 1) No. 3, 19 October 1918, "Flugblatt-Alarm!" No imprint. 1 leaf, printed both sides (32.3 x 21.3 cm); 2) No. 4, 24 October 1918, "Kameraden, passt auf!"; no imprint except name of newspaper: Feldzeitung "Zwischen Maas u. Mosel." 1 leaf, printed both sides (14.3 x 20.4 cm.).
Item 8: Broadside, [Eastern Europe], circa 1918? "Merkblatt über Fleckfieber." Outlines precautions against typhus, with mention of its prevalence in the Russian population, including Polish-Jewish workers and Russian army. Printed by Druckerei der Armeezeitung "Die Wacht im Osten." 1 leaf (23.4 x 22.5 cm.).
Item 9: Concert program (flier), circa 1914-1918, "Sinfonie-Konzert für ruhende Truppen der 192. Infanterie-Division ausgeführt von der Kapelle des 17. Königl. Sächsischen Infanterie-Regiments 183." Printed by Felddruckerei A.O.K. 5. 1 leaf (21.3 x 14.3 cm.).
Item 10: Broadside, circa October 1918: "Es geht ums Leben." No author identified. Makes referece to the speech of prime minister Clemenceau before the French Senate on 17 September [1918], and an editorial of the Swiss newspaper Berner Tagblatt criticizing American president Wilson for his stance in tentative armistice negotiations with Germany. Judging from last four paragraphs (verso) text is addressed to German soldiers ("So kann jetzt kein deutscher Soldat mehr im Zweifel sein ...."; "... du, deutscher Feldgrauer!"; "... du, deutscher Krieger ...."). No imprint. 1 leaf, printed both sides (31.7 x 23.5 cm.).

Item 11: Die Feldpost: ein fröhlicher Gruss der Evangelischen Kirche in der Nordmark an die deutschen Brüder in Heer und Flotte, No. 29 (5 October 1914). Newspaper of the Lutheran Church in the Nordmark (=Schleswig-Holstein). Printed by H. H. Nölke, Bordesholm. One illustration. 4 p. (28.3 x 21 cm.).
Item 12: Feldzeitung der Armee-Abteilung Gronau, No. 99 (5 April 1918). Editor: Wölfle. Printed by Felddruckerei der Armee-Abteilung Gronau. 4 p. (34.8 x 25.6 cm.).
Item 13: Feldzeitung der 5. Armee, Sonderausgabe, 1 August 1915. "Neueste Nachrichten 310." Message headed "An das deutsche Volk!" Text signed by German Emperor Wilhelm II, dated 31 July 1915. No imprint. 1 leaf, printed both sides (33 x 21 cm.).
Item 14: Feldzeitung der 5. Armee, 3 May 1916. "Neueste Nachrichten 587." No imprint. 4 p. (33 x 21 cm.).
Item 15: Funker-Zeitung, [Kiev, Ukraine?], 30 August 1918. "Armee-Funkerabteilung 17, Heeresgruppe Eichhorn." No imprint. 1 leaf (34.3 x 22.4 cm.).
Item 16: Stobsiade: Halbmonatsschrift des deutschen Gefangenen-Lagers Stobs, Schottl., 1. Jahrg., Nr. 4 (24 October 1915). Newspaper of the German prisoner-of-war camp Stobs, Scotland. No imprint. 4 p. (27.9 x 22.2).
Item 17: Kriegszeitung der 4.ten Armee, No. 154 (11 June 1916). With four-page illustrated supplement (Beilage) for Pentecost (Pfingsten); includes two-page spread "Pfingsten an der Front," cartoon by Paul Plontke, dated Flanders, 1916. Total 12 p. (45.2 x 28.6 cm.).
Item 18: Liller Kriegszeitung (Lille, France), [1. Kriegsjahr], No. 5 (27 December 1914). 4 p. (44.5 x 31.1 cm.).
Item 19: Liller Kriegszeitung(Lille, France), [1. Kriegsjahr], No. 52, 22 (May 1915). With two-page illlustrated supplement (Beiblatt), Kriegsflugblätter. Total 10 p. (44.2 x 31.4 cm.).
Item 20: Liller Kriegszeitung(Lille, France), 5. Kriegsjahr, No. 1 (1 August 1918). With two-page illustrated supplement (Beiblatt), Kriegsflugblätter, in red and black. Total 6 p. (44.1 x 31.2 cm.).
Item 21: Liller Kriegszeitung(Lille, France), 5. Kriegsjahr, No. 2 (4 August 1918). 4 p. With two-page illustrated supplement (Beiblatt), Kriegsflugblätter. Total 6 p. (45.7 x 31.2 cm.).

Item 22: Program/handbill, Laon, France, January [1915], "Sonntag, den 17. Januar, nachmittags 5 Uhr in der Kathedrale, 9. musikalische Andacht." At head: "Laon (Nordfrankreich), in der Zeit des grossen Krieges." Provides texts for the musical program to be performed in the cathedral. Advertises free admission with note at end about voluntary contributions ("Beim Ausgang Sammlung zur Deckung der Unkosten und fuer die Nationalstiftung zu gunsten der Hinterbliebenen der im Kriege Gefallenen"). No imprint. 1 leaf, printed both sides (32.5 x 22.2 cm.).
Item 23: Poster, Lida (Belarus), June 1917, "Platzmusik im Stadtpark Lida. Sonntag, den 24. Juni 1917, 12 Uhr mittags, ausgeführt durch die Kapelle des Armee - Rekr. - Depots (Musikleiter Cl. Ludwig)." Advertises a musical performance; includes the program. Printed by Stadt-Druckerei Lida. On purplish-gray paper. 1 leaf (32.7 x 25.1 cm.).
Item 24: Playbill, Belgrade? 1917, "Deutsche Balkan-Bühne ... Spielplan." Advertises a performance of the play Die Anna-Lise, a historical comedy by Hermann Hersch, set in Dessau in 1694-1698; includes cast list. Imprint in two parts?: K. u. k. Gouvernement-Druckerei in Belgrad - Bez. 4038 ex 1917 (below program); and Bajanz & Studer, Berlin (at bottom, below a notice that the proceeds will benefit the war effort: "Reinertrag zu Gunsten des Kriegsliebesdienstes"). Artistic head design with image of eagle in profile. 1 leaf (32.1 x 20.8 cm.).
Item 25: Broadside, Libau (=Liepaja, Latvia), circa 1915-1918, "Bekanntmachung." Text signed by soldiers' councils of the army and navy (Soldatenrat der Armee; Soldatenrat der Marine). Announces intention to establish peace and order, and publicizes rules being instituted. Format: two columns, in German and Latvian. No imprint. On pinkish-cream paper. 1 leaf (27.5 x 35.5 cm.).
Item 26: Broadside, Libau (=Liepaja, Latvia), 27 June 1918, "Bekanntmachung." Text signed by Rittmeister, director of police under city commander Gersbach (Polizei Direktor beim Stadthauptmann Gersbach, Rittmeister). Gives advisement about civilians who will need to replace or obtain new identification ("Obostpass"=Ober Ost Pass), and lists the hours and offices where this can be done. Format: two columns, in German and Latvian. Printed by Gottl. D. Meyer, Libau. On purple paper. 1 leaf (27.9 x 36.4 cm.).
Item 27: Broadside, Libau (=Liepaja, Latvia), January 1916, "Bekanntmachung." Text signed by the city administration (Stadtverwaltung), dated Libau, 24 January 1916. Concerns a town meeting on 28 January. Format: Two halves, lengthwise, in German and Latvian. On aqua-colored paper. No imprint. 1 leaf (44 x 30.6 cm.).
Item 28: Broadside, Libau (=Liepaja, Latvia), [1916], "Bekanntmachung." Text signed by the German city director (deutscher Stadthauptmann), Becherer. Concerns the distribution of ration cards for bread and potatoes in November and December. On aqua-greenish-colored paper. No imprint. 1 leaf (44 x 61 cm.).
Item 29: Broadside, Brussels, 29 January 1916, in two halves, lengthwise, with headings: "Verordnung für die Sicherstellung der belgischen Zivilbevölkerung mit Kartoffeln" (top) and "Verordnung betreffend die Höchstpreise für Kartoffeln" (bottom). Both texts signed by Colonel-General (Generaloberst) Freiherr von Bissing, General Gouverneur in Belgium. Conveys regulations related to the delivery of potatoes to the Belgian civilian population, and the maximum price for potatoes. Format: each half in three columns, with text in German, Dutch and French. No imprint. 1 leaf (109.9 x 73.2 cm.; stored folded in half, Gallery Box 2).
Item 30: Broadside, Brussels, 15 April 1917, "Bekanntmachung." Text signed by Lieutenant-General Hurt, Gouverneur of Brussels and Brabant. Publicizes the names of individuals guilty of significant violations of the food regulations (Lebensmittelverordnungen), as a measure to reduce profiteering. Format: in three columns, with text in German, Dutch and French. No imprint. 1 leaf (77.8 x 66; stored between boards).


See also three broadsides in Series I, addressed to German soldiers: Item 3, "Soldaten!" 12 December 1916; Item 4, "Was der Feind will!" [1917]; and Item 10, "Es geht ums Leben," circa October 1918.

Item 31: Pamphlet, [1917], Um was es geht (Berlin: Kriegs-Presse-Amt). No author identified. 9 p. (20.4 x 14.3 cm.).
Item 32: Broadside, [1917], "Auf die Deiche! Zur Ablehnung unseres Friedensangebots," by Gustav Frenssen. Printed by Lindendruckerei und Verlags-Gesellschaft, Berlin. 1 leaf, printed both sides (31.2 x 22.9 cm.).
Item 33: Leaflet (Sonderdruck), Berlin, [1917], "Die Schuldigen," by the Bund deutscher Gelehrter und Künstler (=League of German scholars and artists). Illustrated with cover image of warrior in armor, holding a sword pointing toward the ground, standing in a landscape (industrial to the left, rural to the right), over the words: "hellflammende Entrüstung und heiliger Zorn werden jedes deutschen Mannes und Weibes Kraft verdoppeln, gleichviel ob sie dem Kampf, der Arbeit oder dem opferbereiten Dulden geweiht ist." Artist's signature: A. M. Cay. No imprint. Bifolium, 4 p. (41.2 x 31.7 cm.).
Item 34: Broadside, Berlin, circa 1917-1918, "Wehe dem Besiegten! Was sie aus Deutschland machen wollen." No author identified. Printed by Hermann Klokow, Berlin. 1 leaf, printed both sides (29.5 x 22.9 cm.).
Item 35: Broadside, Berlin, circa 1917-1918, "Deutsches Volk, wach auf!" No author identified. Printed by Otto Elsner, Berlin. 1 leaf (31 x 22.2 cm.).
Item 36: Pictorial broadside, 12 January 1917, "An das deutsche Volk!" Text by German Emperor Wilhelm II, dated from the Great Headquarter (Grosses Hauptquartier), addressed to the German people, calling upon them to renew resolve in the face of the unacceptable response of the Entente powers to his peace offer [of 12 December 1916]. Image: Female warrior holding sword, pointing upward, leading a crowd of people of varying classes; eagle hovering with outstretched wings behind her, at right. Artist's signature: Franz Stassen. No imprint. 1 leaf (45.7 x 31.9 cm.).
Item 37: Broadside, 12 January 1917, "An das deutsche Volk!" text by German Emperor Wilhelm II, dated Grosses Hauptquartier (=Great headquarters), 12 January 1917. Identical text as on pictorial broadside of the same date (Item 36). Printed by Lütcke & Wulff, E. H. Senats Buchdrucker, Hamburg. 1 leaf (59 x 46.1 cm.).

Items 38 to 43: Broadsides, Dortmund, ca. 1914-1915. Series title: "Eiserne Blätter" (Dortmund: C.L. Krüger). No authors identified. Available at ("sind zu beziehen durch") D. Traub, Dortmund; proceeds to benefit the war effort ("Überschüsse für den Kriegsliebesdienst bestimmt"). Text framed with double border in red and black. Included are No. 9, "Weihnachtsgruss" (Item 38); No. 13, "Kamerad" (Item 39); No. 17, "Ernst" (2 copies, Items 40 and 41); No. 23, "Lusitania" (Item 42); and No. 30, "Deutschlands Schwerttag, 1. August 1914/1. August 1915" (Item 43). Each item is 1 leaf (29.1 x 22.1 cm.).
Item 44: Leaflet, Herford, 1915, Gedenkblatt an den Heldentod des Kapitänleutnants Otto Weddigen, Ehrenbürgers der Stadt Herford. Memorial publication in honor of the death of Otto Weddigen, of Herford. Dedicated by the newspaper Herforder Kreisblatt to its readers, dated 19 April 1915; prepared for publication by the editor of the newspaper, Fritz Heidemann. Illustrated with portrait of Weddigen. Bifolium, 4 p. (38.1 x 29.8 cm.).
Item 45: Broadside, Berlin, circa 1916-1918. Text: "Aluminum, Kupfer, Messing, Nickel, Zinn ist genug im Lande! . . . . Deutsche Frauen und Männer! Was im Haushalt, im Geschäft entbehrlich, oder leicht zu ersetzen ist, liefert es ab!" Image: Worker holding sack, collecting metal. Printed by Imberg & Lefson, Berlin. Text and image both in black, on blue paper. 1 leaf (18.2 x 41.6 cm.).
Item 46: Broadside, Hamburg, circa 1916-1920? "Gegen England." Two rhymed couplets by Fritz von Briesen. Printed by Kunstdruckerei Mühlmeister & Johler, Hamburg. In red and black. 1 leaf (27.9 x 42.9 cm.).
Item 47: Pictorial broadside, Berlin, circa 1917, "Der Weg des Geldes." Text by Gustav Hochstetter and drawings by Walter Trier. Edited and printed by Wilhelm Wagner, Berlin. Six panels, in a satirical style, in color, with rhymed captions. Relates to war bond drive (Kriegsanleihe). 1 leaf (36.9 x 27 cm.).
Item 48: Pictorial broadside, Berlin, circa 1917, "Deutschland darf nicht rasten, rosten! -- Und der Krieg verursacht Kosten." Text in rhymed verses by Gottlieb, and drawings by Louis Oppenheim. Eight panels, in a satirical style, in color. Relates to war bond drive, with reference to the completed 6th war bond (Kriegsanleihe). Edited and printed by Wilhelm Wagner, Berlin. 1 leaf (37.2 x 26.9 cm.).
Item 49: Broadside, [1918], "Die Kaiserrede in Essen vom 11. September 1918." Text of speech by German Emperor Wilhelm II addressed to an audience (implicitly, the workers) at the Krupp works in Essen ("Meine lieben Freunde von den kruppschen Werken!"). Printed by Voigt & Gleiber, Frankfurt am Main. 1 leaf, printed both sides (27.3 x 21.3 cm.).
Item 50: Flier, Posen (=Poznan, Poland), circa 1914-1918, "Warum braucht das Vaterland Gold und Juwelen?" At head: "Merkblatt für die Juwelen- und Goldankaufswoche der Provinz Posen." Provides information about why citizens should sell their jewels and gold on the occasion of the jewel-and-gold-buying week of the province of Posen, in order to benefit the Reichsbank and the war effort. Issued and/or printed by D. Goldberg, Posen. On blue paper. 1 leaf, printed both sides (23.2 x 15.6 cm.).
Item 51: Pictorial broadside, Berlin, circa 1914, "Bunte Kriegsbogen, Made in Germany," by Leo Leipziger. Six panels, in a satirical style, in color, with rhymed captions. Concerns a British soldier in German captivity. Published by Vereinigung der Kunstfreunde (Troitzsch, Berlin-Schöneberg), editor Hans Schuppmann, Berlin-Schöneberg. 1 leaf (44.8 x 35.1 cm.).
Item 52: Broadside, Berlin, circa 1915, "Um Haus und Herd," by Gustav Frenssen. At bottom: "Dazu hilf du deinem Land!" Published by Kriegspresseamt; printed by Otto Elsner, Berlin. 1 leaf (46.3 x 30 cm.).
Item 53: Poster, Hamburg, 1915, "Hamburg Opfertag, 1 Nov. 1915, Weihnachtsgabe an unsere im Felde stehenden Truppen." Appeal for charitable giving to benefit soldiers at Christmas time, distributed by the committee for the Hamburger Opfertag (=Hamburg day of sacrifice). Image: soldier with rifle on shoulder in winter landscape. Printed by Kunstanstalt Wüsten & Co., Frankfurt am Main. Tag tipped on with message encouraging recipients to put poster on display in shop windows ("Wir bitten hierdurch höflichst, beifolgendes Plakat möglichst sofort an günstiger Stelle in Ihrem Schaufenster aushängen zu wollen. Hierfür dankt der Ausschuss vom Hamburger Opfertag"). 1 leaf (45 x 59.6 cm.).
Item 54: Poster, Hamburg, 1916, "Hamburg Opfertag 1916 für Heer und Marine." Appeal for charitable giving to benefit soldiers and sailors, distributed by the committee for the Hamburger Opfertag (=Hamburg day of sacrifice). Image: Soldier in Pickelhaube helmet and sailor, to left and right of flag, respectively; calendar page in center: "5 Oktober"; text below: "Es sage niemand: 'Ich habe schon gegeben'; unsere Truppen sagen auch nicht: 'Wir haben schon gekämpft!'" Artist's signature: O. Weil. Printed by Kunstanstalt Wüsten & Co., Frankfurt am Main. 1 leaf (44.8 x 60.3 cm.).
Item 55: Broadside, Hamburg, 24 April 1917, "Bekanntmachung betreffend die Anmeldung zur Landsturmrolle der im Jahre 1900 geborenen Wehrpflichtigen im Aushebungsbezirk Hamburg." Calls upon men born in 1900 and now turning 17 to enlist for military service (Landsturm), pursuant to the imperial regulation of 28 May 1915. Text signed by the military recruiting authorities (Militär-Ersatzbehörden). Printed by Lütke & Wulff, E. H. Senats Buchdrucker. On pink paper. 1 leaf (58.1 x 45.7 cm.).
Item 56: Broadside, [1918], "Schweigen ist das Gebot der Stunde." No author identified; no imprint. Admonishes the German citizenry to maintain silence and secrecy concerning all matters related to armaments and war strategy. Date from pencilled note ("Flugblatt aus Deutschland 1918"). 1 leaf (46.8 x 32.4 cm.).
Item 57: Theater poster, Hamburg, circa 1915, "Soldatenspiele im Curio-Haus ab 25 März täglich, abends 7-1/2 Uhr ... 'Der König rief.'" Printed by Kunstanstalt Seitz, Hamburg-Wandsbeck. Image: soldier on horseback with raised sword. Artist's signature: WE. In green and black. Condition: fragile; in two large pieces and one small fragment. 1 leaf (71.5 x 44.6 cm.; Gallery Box 2).
Item 58: Poster, Pfullingen (Baden-Württemberg), [1917], "Leiht euer Geld für der Heimat Schutz und Wehr! Zeichnet Kreigsanleihe!" Printed by Emil Hochdanz, Stuttgart. Image: hilt of sword facing downward into the text, landscape with river in background. Black and brown. Artist: Hugo Frank. Firm name appears at bottom: Stahl und Federer Aktiengesellschaft. Stamp of the Pfullingen branch (Geschäftsstelle) of the firm. 1 leaf (76 x 46.4 cm.; Gallery Box 2).
Item 59: Poster, Hamburg, circa 1914-1918, "Gedenket unsere Krieger und Verwundeten / Hamburgischer Landesverein vom Roten Kreuz." Promotes the war work of the German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz) of Hamburg. Printed by W. Gente, Hamburg. Image: soldier with bugle on battlefield; image of red cross upper left. Artist's signature: Pieper. Printed in black except for red cross and some red lettering; on cream-colored paper. 1 leaf (86.8 x 65.3 cm.; stored between boards).

Item 60: Broadside, [May 1919]: "Ultimatum oder verhandeln?" (=Ultimatum or negotiations?) Argues that Germany should stand firm in the face of the ultimatum of the victorious powers, with the aim of negotiation [regarding the Treaty of Versailles]. No author identified; no imprint. Date added in pencil. 1 leaf (40 x 27.3 cm.).
Item 61: Broadside, Danzig (=Gdansk, Poland), circa 1919: "Wenn wir polnisch würden--" (=If we were to become Polish). Raises the specter of the loss of German culture and German way of life under a Polish regime; contains anti-Polish sentiment. No author identified. Printed by Danziger Allgemeine Zeitung, Danzig. Pencilled note at top: "Flugblatt aus Ostpreussen" (=flier from East Prussia), dated 1919. 1 leaf, printed both sides (31 x 23.8 cm.).
Item 62: Broadside, Hamburg, [circa 13 March 1920]: "Telegram des Reichsministers Koch an den Bürgermeister in Hamburg." Pencilled note: "beim Kapp-Putsch." Conveys text of a telegram sent by German minister of the interior, Erich Koch-Weser, to the mayor of Hamburg, on the occasion of the Kapp Putsch, referring to the national government's having taken refuge in Dresden, and an upcoming meeting of the National Assembly in Stuttgart. Printed by Hamburger Buchdruckerei und Verlagsanstalt Auer & Co., Hamburg. 1 leaf (40.7 x 28.6 cm.).
Item 63: Broadside, Hamburg, [circa 17 March 1920]: "Deutsches Volk, Schütze deine Verfassung!" Text signed: Zentralverlag Hamburg. Addresses the German people on the occasion of the end of the Kapp Putsch, referring to the flight of Kapp, and the resignation of General von Lüttwitz. Printed by Hamburger Buchdruckerei und Verlagsanstalt Auer & Co., Hamburg. 1 leaf (28 x 20.8 cm.).
Item 64: Broadside: Hamburg, [circa late March 1920], "An die Bevölkerung Gross-Hamburgs!" Text signed by Hamburg mayor Diestel, senators Hense and Hegemann, and others. Address to the population of greater Hamburg, referring to the end of the Kapp Putsch and the role of Hamburg in its defeat, through united efforts of the ruling left parties, the senate, and the citizenry, and appealing for renewed dedication to revival of economic life. Printed by Hamburger Buchdruckerei und Verlagsanstalt Auer & Co., Hamburg. 1 leaf (28.6 x 20.8 cm.).
Item 65: Broadside, Hamburg, 17 April 1919, "Neugierige sind gewarnt" (=Curiosity-seekers beware). At head: "Kommandanturbefehl vom 17.4.19." Text signed by commander of soldiers' council (Kommandtur-Soldatenrat), Wrede, and commander of greater Hamburg (Kommandant von Gross-Hamburg), Lamp'l. Advisement that, in view of recent events, militias (Volkswehrtruppen) and security and police units have been given authority to use weapons against bands of intruders and plunderers. Printed by Hamburger Buchdruckerei und Verlagsanstalt Auer & Co., Hamburg. On pink paper. 1 leaf (56.8 x 42.7 cm.).
Item 66: Poster: Hamburg, circa 1919, "Meldet Euch bei der 11. Marine-Brigade Div. Lettow-Vorbeck / Berufssoldaten und gediente Leute!" Seeks recruits for the 11th naval brigade (Marine-Brigade) division of Lettow-Vorbeck (Freikorps, or voluntary military forces headed by Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck), urging professional soldiers and other experienced people to join in order to help the government rebuild the fatherland ("Helft der Regierung beim Neuaufbau unseren Vaterlandes"); gives main recruitment office as Wilhelmshaven, and lists other offices in Hamburg and ten other German cities. Image: soldier in steel helmet, pointing into the distance. In blue, gold, and black. No artist's signature. Printed by Hartung Druck Hamburg. Note on provenance: only item in this collection that lacks the stamp of Emil Doernenburg; has only the stamp of the Archives of the German Society of Pennsylvania. 1 leaf (94.2 x 65.5; stored between boards).

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