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Crawford H. Greenewalt papers


Held at: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia [Contact Us]1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA, 19103

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in their reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Overview and metadata sections

Crawford Hallock Greenewalt (1902-1993) was a chemical engineer and the President of the DuPont Company from 1948 to 1962. He had a passion for the natural sciences, and combined his love of ornithology with photography. He was especially known for his high speed photographs of hummingbirds. His ornithological interests included bird songs, the radiance of hummingbird feathers and the evolution of shapes and sizes of birds in relation to their flight abilities.

Born August 16, 1902 in Cummington, Massachusetts, Crawford H. Greenewalt was the son of Frank Lindsay and Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt. He graduated from William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia and earned a BS in chemical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1922.

Immediately after graduating from MIT, Greenewalt began a life long career with the DuPont Company. He began working as a control chemist in the Philadelphia Works of the Paint, Lacquer and Heavy Chemicals Department, moved to Central Research and Development Department and was assigned to the Experimental Station, of which he became, in 1939, the assistant director. In January of 1942, he was elected director of the DuPont Company.

During World War II, the DuPont Company was recruited by General Leslie R. Groves (1896-1970) to participate in the war effort. Greenewalt was on the Reviewing Committee, which was charged with investigating the atomic bomb. Greenewalt “was technical director of the DuPont plutonium plant at Hansford, Washington … and witnessed the first controlled atomic reaction at the University of Chicago stadium,” ( Auk). His involvement with the Manhattan Project required him to work as a liaison between the University of Chicago physicists, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer and Enrico Fermi, and the DuPont engineers and construction crews.

In 1945, he became the assistant director of the Development Department, and, later that year, the Assistant General Manger of the Pigments Department. Greenewalt was elected as Vice President of the DuPont Company on May 19, 1947 and as President of the DuPont Company on January 19, 1948. He served as president from 1948 to 1962. He served as a board chairman from 1962 to 1967 and as chairman of the Finance Committee from 1962 to 1973. Greenewalt “played major roles in the development of nylon and in the birth of DuPont’s atomic energy program,” (MIT). He is credited with “build[ing] basic research strength, making [DuPont] one of the strongest science-based companies in the world,” (MIT).

In addition to his success at DuPont, Greenewalt was also highly successful in the fields of ornithology and photography. Greenewalt photographed his first hummingbird in 1953 in Delaware. In his book, Hummingbirds, he writes; "I had read of the hummingbird's extremely rapid wing beat and was interested primarily in seeing whether a technique I had developed for photographing small birds in flight would produce satisfactory results with these darting acrobats. To my surprise, wing action was adequately 'stopped' and the pictures were charming and much admired. So it was I caught hummingbird fever," (Greenewalt, p. ix). According to Academy News, Greenewalt, “unraveled secrets of song production by birds, of the structural basis of vivid hummingbird colors, of the evolution of shapes and sizes of birds in relation to their flight abilities, particularly the understanding of the energy requirements of the rapid movements of a hummingbird’s wings which appear to most as a hazy blur,” ( Academy News).

Greenewalt wrote in his book, Bird song: Acoustics and Physiology, "Since I cannot qualify as an ornithologist, an acoustical physicist, or as an expert on modern instrumentation, I have had to solicit much assistance in all three categories. . . " (Greenewalt). However, ornithology was more than hobby and Greenewalt “devised photographic equipment to determine … rate of acceleration to flight speed … [and] in cooperation with the late Harold E. Edgerton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and engineers of the DuPont company … developed high-speed photography capable of ‘freezing’ the rapid wing beats of hummingbirds,” ( Auk). He has made significant contributions to stop-action and time-lapse photography.

His enthusiasm as a naturalist brought about his involvement with the Academy of Natural Sciences. Greenewalt served on the Board of Trustees for the Academy of Natural Sciences from 1940 to 1966 and as an honorary from 1966 till his death. In 1951, the Atomic Energy Commission enlisted DuPont to construct a plutonium production plant on the Savannah River in South Carolina. Greenewalt was concerned about the environmental impact and worked with the Academy of Natural Sciences botanist and limnologist, Ruth Patrick to study the condition of the water and assess the effects of the proposed plant on the ecosystem. Patrick was appointed to DuPont's Board of Trustees and Greenewalt would not build the plant without the Academy's approval.

In 1979, Greenewalt worked with the Academy's Director of Ornithology, Frank Gill to establish the Visual Resources of Ornithology (VIREO), which is the Academy of Natural Science's world-wide bird photograph collection, and has become the world's most comprehensive collection of ornithological images. Greenewalt's photographs were the seed collection for the project. He also provided VIREO with an endowment.

Greenewalt is the author of three monograph works: The Uncommon Man: the Individual in the Organization, published in 1959; Hummingbirds, published in 1960; and Birdsong: Acoustics and Physiology, published in 1968. He also authored numerous articles in a variety of publications, such as National Geographic and the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. He served as: a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, the president of the American Philosophical Society, a fellow in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member emeritus of the Board of Trustees of the National Geographic Society, a trustee of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and a life member of the MIT Council. He received the Gold Medal of Merit of the Wharton School Alumni Society in 1952; the William Proctor Prize for Scientific Achievement by the Scientific Research Society of America in 1957; the 1958 Medal for Advancement of Research by the American Society of Metals; the Gold Medal Award of the American Institute of Chemists in 1959; the Poor Richard Club’s Gold Medal of Achievement in 1959; the Economic Club’s Gold Medal Award in 1961; the John Fritz Medal by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1961; the Society Medal by the Society of Chemical Industry in 1963; the Robert E. Wilson award by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1967; and the Academy of Natural Sciences' Richard Hopper Day Medal in 1980. He also held honorary degrees from many institutions.

In 1926, Greenewalt married Margaretta Lammot DuPont and they were the parents of three children: David, Crawford, Jr. and Nancy. Margaretta Lammot DuPont Greenewalt died in 1991. Crawford H. Greenewalt died on September 27, 1993. He is remembered as “a rare individual—one of the leading chief executives of his time who was also a fine scientist and a discerning humanist,” (MIT).


Academy News. “Day Medal 1980: Crawford Greenewalt,” Winter, Volume 3 (4),1980.

Author and Source Unknown. Biography of Crawford Hallock Greenewalt (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Biographical File).

Auk. “In Memoriam: Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1902-1993,” by Albert E. Conway. Volume 111 (1): 188-189, 1994.

Greenewalt, Crawford H. Bird song : Acoustics and Physiology. Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “Crawford Greenewalt of DuPont Dies,” (accessed December 16, 2009).

This collection documents Crawford H. Greenewalt's personal study of ornithology, primarily his work on hummingbirds. The materials date from 1951 to 1993 and are arranged into the following series: "Manuscripts/writing/publications," "Photographs, proofs and contact sheets," "Photographs, mounted prints," "Slides and transparencies," "Negatives," "Microscope slides," "Sketches for 1960 publication Hummingbirds," "Awards" and "Objects." The collection consists primarily of photographs taken by Greenewalt and technical data collected by Greenewalt. The images photographed by Greenewalt exist in many different formats throughout the collection, including prints, negatives and slides. The technical data in this collection represents Greenewalt's research into the physiology of hummingbirds, and the development of his high-speed photographic technique. In addition to Greenewalt's research material, this collection also houses drafts and edits of some of Greenewalt's original publications.

Photographs constitute the bulk of this collection, most of which are undated. When there are dates associated with an image, it is not certain whether those dates refer to the moment the picture was taken or when the print was created. Greenewalt's field notes are the most promising component of this collection for determining photograph dates. These forty-four notebooks contain documentation of photo sessions between the years 1956 and 1983, including the name of the bird, location and date. Researchers concerned with knowing the exact date of any particular image should consult Greenewalt’s field notes for clues.

This collection is of great research value as it documents the process of innovating high-speed photography techniques, amateur ornithological methodology and Greenewalt's research process. This collection also demonstrates wide-spread recognition that Greenewalt's efforts in ornithology received from contemporary academic and professional institutions.

The processing of this collection was made possible through generous funding from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, administered through the Council on Library and Information Resources’ “Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives” Project.

This collection was minimally processed in 2009-2011, as part of an experimental project conducted under the auspices of the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries to help eliminate processing backlog in Philadelphia repositories. A minimally processed collection is one processed at a less intensive rate than traditionally thought necessary to make a collection ready for use by researchers. When citing sources from this collection, researchers are advised to defer to folder titles provided in the finding aid rather than those provided on the physical folder.

Employing processing strategies outlined in Mark Greene's and Dennis Meissner's 2005 article, More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Processing Approaches to Deal With Late 20th-Century Collections, the project team tested the limits of minimal processing on collections of all types and ages, in 23 Philadelphia area repositories. A primary goal of the project, the team processed at an average rate of 2-3 hours per linear foot of records, a fraction of the time ordinarily reserved for the arrangement and description of collections. Among other time saving strategies, the project team did not extensively review the content of the collections, replace acidic folders or complete any preservation work.

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
Finding Aid Author
Finding aid prepared by Laurie Rizzo and Eric Rosenzweig
The processing of this collection was made possible through generous funding from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, administered through the Council on Library and Information Resources’ “Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives” Project.
Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research.

Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may apply. Please contact the Archives with requests for copying and for authorization to publish, quote or reproduce the material.

Collection Inventory

Scope and Contents note

The "Manuscripts/writing/publications" series contains research on the various fields of interest conducted by and collected by Crawford Greenewalt. There are five main areas of interest on which Greenewalt has published works. The material in this series reflects Greenewalt’s research and editing processes for these publications. This series is divided into six subseries, five of which are dedicated to a single area of research and one subseries of "Personal papers." The subseries are "Photography", "Hummingbird Project", "Feather reflectance", "Flight", and "Birdsong."

The "Photography" subseries contains material related to Greenewalt's photography experimentation and technique development. The first part of the subseries is a collection of notebooks referred to by Greenewalt as “Field Notes.” Notebook entries document photo shoots, providing information on the location, subject, name, date and technical information about camera setup and use. The collection of notebooks as a whole provides a detailed account of Greenewalt's photographic efforts from 1956 to 1983. These notebooks are arranged chronologically.

The second portion of the "Photography" subseries contains Greenewalt's collection of equipment operation manuals and test data. The manuals and the test data associated with the specific pieces of equipment are arranged alphabetically by object name.

The "Hummingbird Project" subseries contains materials related to Greenewalt's publication titled, Hummingbirds. These materials include inventories of bird photographs and slides, drafts of captions for illustrations, and marked-up proofs of the photos that were used for that monograph. As a whole, this subseries demonstrates Greenewalt's editing process for this project. The materials are arranged chronologically.

The "Feather reflectance" subseries consists almost entirely of technical data and publications that Greenewalt referenced while doing research for his own publication on the physical properties of hummingbird feathers. In addition to this research material, this subseries also contains a group of electron microscope images of hummingbird feathers. The material in this subseries is arranged chronologically.

The "Flight" subseries contains a good deal of technical data related to the physics of bird flight, including notebooks containing flight sketches showing wingtip movement, wingtip movement analysis data, and information about physical proportions. This subseries contains some published material that Greenewalt used for research, as well as drafts and final versions of his own publications on the topic. The materials in this subseries are arranged alphabetically.

The majority of the materials contained in the "Birdsong" subseries is technical data. Specifically, there are large amounts of harmonic measurements or oscillograms of various bird calls, which Greenewalt has called "birdsong," and writings that analyze and describe these measurements. This subseries also includes phonographic recordings of bird calls and Greenewalt’s published material on the topic. This subseries emphasizes the research aspect of Greenewalt's writing, rather than the editing process. This subseries is arranged chronologically.

The "Personal papers" series contains some correspondence and other personal ephemera.

Because materials in this series are arranged in a chronological manner, researchers interested in correspondence with specific individuals and/or subjects, should review the entire folder list.

Field notebooks, 1956-1983.
Box 1 Volume 2-45
Observation notes, 1973.
Box 1 Folder 1
Acopian DC power supplies operating manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 1
Bausch and Lomb StereoZoom Microscope operating manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 2
Bird cage photographic techniques, circa 1969.
Box 2 Folder 3
Bird cage photographic techniques correspondence, 1965.
Box 2 Folder 4
Bird cage photographs, undated.
Box 2 Folder 5
Bird cage photography technique diagrams, undated.
Box 2 Folder 6
Braun F-80 Strobe parts list and performance data, 1966, 1977, 1987.
Box 2 Folder 7
Braun F-80 Strobe test notes, 1976.
Box 2 Folder 8
Data book on camera and strobes, 1956.
Box 2 Folder 9
Data books on bird photography techniques, circa 1969.
Box 2 Folder 10
Edgerton, Inc. "Performance Data on High-speed Stroboscope", undated.
Box 2 Folder 11
Edgerton strobe lamps angle view data, undated.
Box 2 Folder 12
Eumig Supers Projector manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 13
General Radio Company stroboscopy publications, 1970.
Box 2 Folder 14
General Radio Company strobolumy operating manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 15
Hasselblad camera 500EL "Register for Assembly and Adjustment", 1965, 1966.
Box 2 Folder 16
Hasselblad camera wiring diagrams, 1968-1970.
Box 2 Folder 17
Hasselblad camera lenses and strobe calculation notes, undated.
Box 2 Folder 18
Havahart Traps manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 19
Hewlett-Packard bird song console performance data, 1964.
Box 2 Folder 20
Hewlett-Packard oscillator operating manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 21
Hoell circuit data to measure time on Hasselblad shutters, 1969.
Box 2 Folder 22
Hoell charging unit data, 1969.
Box 2 Folder 23
Hot splicer information specifications, 1979.
Box 2 Folder 24
Inventory: hummingbirds selected mono pictures, 1955, undated.
Box 2 Folder 25
Inventory: hummingbirds selected stereopictures, 1961, undated.
Box 2 Folder 26
Inventory: Australia and New Guinea slides, 1969-1971, undated.
Box 2 Folder 27
Inventory: Australia and New Guinea selected pictures, 1969,1971,1973, undated.
Box 2 Folder 28
Inventory: East Africa, Caribbean, and selected pictures, 1974, 1982, undated.
Box 2 Folder 29
Inventory: Master list of bird species photographed by Greenewalt, 1975.
Box 2 Folder 30
Inventory: Ecuador selected pictures, 1980, undated.
Box 2 Folder 31
Inventory: Photographs copied from Sickles camera, 1981, undated.
Box 2 Folder 32
Inventory: South America mono and stereo photographs, 1982-1983, undated.
Box 2 Folder 33
Inventory: Sweden, Europe, and selected photographs, 1982-1983, undated.
Box 2 Folder 34
Inventory of slides, adapted from James L. Peters' Check-list of Birds of the World, undated.
Box 2 Folder 35
Kodak neutral test card, undated.
Box 2 Folder 36
Kodak movie deck projector operating manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 37
Lamp output measurements, undated.
Box 2 Folder 38
Lansing speakers manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 39
Leicina Special Super-8 Cine Camera operating manual, 1971.
Box 2 Folder 40
MaxiFlash Unit instructions, undated.
Box 2 Folder 41
Miller Fluid Heads product information, 1975, undated.
Box 2 Folder 42
Nagra tape recorder instruction manuals, 1963.
Box 2 Folder 43
Nikon lens tests, 1972.
Box 2 Folder 44
Nikon lens test notes, undated.
Box 2 Folder 45
Nikon lenses operating manuals, undated.
Box 2 Folder 46
Published article on bird photography by Paul Schwartz, undated.
Box 2 Folder 47
Sony Electret Condenser Microphone instruction manuals, undated.
Box 2 Folder 48
Sony tape recorder instruction manual, undated.
Box 2 Folder 49
Stereo geometry calculations, 1959, 1975.
Box 2 Folder 50
Stereo geometry calculations, undated.
Box 2 Folder 51-52
Stereo viewer instructions, undated.
Box 2 Folder 53
Strobes wiring data by R.P. Schwenker, 1960-1961.
Box 2 Folder 54
Thoren's turntable mounting template, undated .
Box 2 Folder 55
Thoren's turntable and MacIntosh 700 receiver manuals, undated.
Box 2 Folder 56
Trigger to flash notes, 1969, 1976.
Box 2 Folder 57
Trigger circuit wiring diagram, 1974.
Box 2 Folder 58
Trigger stereo wiring diagram, 1974.
Box 2 Folder 59
VIREO collection and equipment papers, 1980-1993.
Box 2 Folder 60-61
Preliminary mounted prints, circa 1966.
Box 2 Folder 62
Caption for prints, circa 1977.
Box 2 Folder 63
Annotated proofs 1-50, undated.
Box 2 Folder 64-65
Annotated proofs 51-100, 104-159, undated.
Box 3 Folder 1-2
Mounting materials, undated.
Box 3 Folder 3
Caption edits, undated.
Box 3 Folder 4
Preliminary index, undated.
Box 3 Folder 5
Type proofs, undated.
Box 3 Folder 6
Published article, "Research on the Structure of Hummingbird Feathers," by Jean Dorst, 1951.
Box 3 Folder 7
Electron photographs and graphs, 1955.
Box 3 Folder 8
Electron photographs and graphs, 1957.
Box 3 Folder 9
Published article, "Reflection Coefficient of Optically Inhomogeneous Layers," by Joseph Hall, Jr., 1957, 1958.
Box 3 Folder 10
Electron microscope images of Thalurania furcata, circa 1958.
Box 3 Folder 11
Electron microscope images of Heliangelus viola gorget, 1958.
Box 3 Folder 12
Electron microscope image of Eriocnemis vestita gorget, 1958.
Box 3 Folder 13
Electron microscope image of Aglaiocercus kingi crown and Heliangelus strophianus gorget, 1958.
Box 3 Folder 14
Wing tip movement analysis drawings, 1958.
Box 3 Folder 15
Electron microscope images of Clytolaema rubricauba, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 16
Electron microscope images of Helianthea bronapartei, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 17
Electron microscope images of Helianthea helianthea, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 18
Electron microscope images of Chrysolampis elatus, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 19
Electron microscope images and analysis, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 20
Stereograph electron microscope images of cross-sections, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 21
Electron microscope images of Thalurinia furcata, cross-sections of barbules, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 22
Electron microscope images of Clytholaena rubricavda feather cross-sections, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 23
Electron microscope images of Calypte costae feather cross-sections, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 24
Electron microscope images of Chrysolampis elatus feather cross-sections, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 25
Electron microscope images of Clytolaema rubricauda feather cross-sections, 1959.
Box 3 Folder 26
Electron microscope images of various species, circa 1959.
Box 3 Folder 27
Drafts, "Iridescent Colors of Hummingbird Feathers," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, Werner Brandt and D.D. Friel, circa 1959.
Box 3 Folder 28
Photomicrographs of feathers, circa 1960.
Box 3 Folder 29-33
Letter from Chicago Natural History Museum regarding feather identification, 1962.
Box 3 Folder 34
Published article, "Results of Some Studies on the Iridescence of Feathers," by Wilhelm Joseph Schmidt, 1948, undated.
Box 3 Folder 36
Hummingbird feather reflectance data analysis by species, undated.
Box 4 Volume 1-14
Hummingbird species alphabetical index, undated.
Box 4 Folder 15
Sequence photographic prints (spiral bound), 1953 August 17.
Box 7 Folder 1
Collected data on weights of flight muscles, 1954.
Box 5 Folder 1
Published article, "Flight of the Black-Capped Chickadee and the White-Breasted Nuthatch," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1955.
Box 5 Folder 2
Wing tip motion sketches, 1959.
Box 5 Folder 6
Wing tip motion data, 1959.
Box 5 Folder 7
Equations, graphs and data on the physics of bird flight, 1960.
Box 5 Folder 8
Published article, "The Wings of Insects and Birds as Mechanical Oscillators," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1960.
Box 5 Folder 9
Manuscript, "Dimensional Relationships of Flying Animals," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1960.
Box 5 Folder 10
Wing beat rates analysis, 1968.
Box 5 Folder 11
Hummingbirds original data, 1969.
Box 5 Folder 12
Hummingbirds original data stereographs, circa 1969.
Box 5 Folder 13
Articles on flight by Clarence P. Cone, 1970.
Box 5 Folder 14
Flapping rates of storks and calculations, 1971.
Box 5 Folder 15
Hootnanny Hypotrochoid Programs examples, 1972.
Box 5 Folder 16
Draft, "Hummingbirds. Why no Larger? Why No Smaller?" by Crawford H. Greenewalt, circa 1972.
Box 5 Folder 17
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section I, circa 1972.
Box 5 Folder 18
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section I figures, circa 1972.
Box 5 Folder 19
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section I technical data, circa 1972.
Box 5 Folder 20
Second draft of paper on dimensional relationships section I text, circa 1972.
Box 5 Folder 21
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section II figures, circa 1972.
Box 5 Folder 22
Correspondence with R.H. Miller regarding paper on dimensional relationships section II, 1972.
Box 5 Folder 23
Correspondence with Cone and Kirchner regarding paper on dimensional relationships section II, 1972.
Box 5 Folder 24
Correspondence with V.A. Tucker regarding paper on dimensional relationships section II, 1972.
Box 5 Folder 25
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section III text, 1974.
Box 5 Folder 26
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section III original charts and mounted copies, circa 1974.
Box 5 Folder 27
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships section III bibliography and appendix, circa 1974.
Box 5 Folder 28
Draft of paper on dimensional relationships unused figures, circa 1974.
Box 5 Folder 29
Manuscript, "Flight of Birds," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, circa 1974.
Box 5 Folder 30-32
Fronts piece images for paper on dimensional relationships, 1975.
Box 5 Folder 33
Published article: "Flight of Birds," by Crawford H. Greenewalt (author's copy), 1975.
Box 5 Folder 34-36
Published article, "Flight of Birds," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1975 July.
Box 5 Folder 37
Correspondence with V.A. Tucker, 1975.
Box 5 Folder 38
Reprints of articles on hummingbirds and other nectar eating birds, circa 1979.
Box 5 Folder 39
Draft and publication, "Energetics of Animal Locomotion- is small size really disadvantageous," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1976 .
Box 5 Folder 40
Data on flight power, free flight and wing loading, 1979.
Box 5 Folder 41
Hummingbird wing disc loading material, 1980.
Box 5 Folder 42
Cost of transport per unit length of animals and artifacts, circa 1980.
Box 5 Folder 43
Calculations based on Pete Myers data, 1982-1984.
Box 6 Folder 1
Herman Goldstine's calculations, 1983.
Box 6 Folder 2
Greenewalt computer use notes, 1984-1985.
Box 6 Folder 3
Dimensional relationships of saunderlings, ruby throated hummingbirds, black-capped chickadees, and myrtle warblers, circa 1984.
Box 6 Folder 4
Summary of data on black-capped chickadee, circa 1984.
Box 6 Folder 5
Land birds report, circa 1985.
Box 7 Folder 2
Pete Myers' wings and weights data, 1986.
Box 6 Folder 6
Three articles on bird flight (spiral bound), 1932, 1934, 1935, undated .
Box 6 Folder 7
Bird song oscillogram, circa 1965.
Box 6 Folder 8
Graphs of bird song modulations, 1966.
Box 6 Folder 9
Letter from Rogers T. Peterson, 1966 December 28.
Box 6 Folder 10
Manuscript, "Acousitics and Physiology of Bird Song," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1968.
Box 6 Folder 11
Published article, "How Birds Sing," by Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1969 November.
Box 6 Folder 12
Bird song recording index, circa 1971.
Box 6 Folder 13
Synthetic speech materials, 1972.
Box 6 Folder 14
Bird song analysis and examples, 1973.
Box 6 Folder 15
Correspondence with Robert Capranica regarding bird song, 1986-1987.
Box 6 Folder 16
Bird song sound catalogs, undated.
Box 6 Folder 17
Hummingbird wing beat oscillograms, undated.
Box 6 Folder 18
Oscillograms, undated.
Box 6 Folder 19
Publication, "Field-List of the Birds of Essex County Massachusetts", 1945 April.
Box 6 Folder 20
Romanche trench photos and letter, 1956.
Box 6 Folder 21
Correspondence regarding hummingbird at Guantanamo Bay, 1960.
Box 6 Folder 22
Letter accompanying gift of Venezuelan hummingbird postage stamps, 1961 September 26.
Box 6 Folder 23
Collection of poetry about hummingbirds, 1971 April 16.
Box 6 Folder 24
Birthday card from "Tuss" and Delmarva Ornithological Society Honorary Membership, 1972, 1973.
Box 6 Folder 25
Robert Cushman Murphy memorial article from Auk, 1974.
Box 6 Folder 26
Bird population estimates from recapture data, 1974.
Box 6 Folder 27
Letter from John Wacham, 1977 September 8.
Box 6 Folder 28
American Philosophical Society lecture notes and slides, 1980.
Box 6 Folder 29
Milbrey Ross wedding gift, 1985.
Box 6 Folder 30
Series of out of context citations and illegible unrelated letter, undated.
Box 6 Folder 31

Scope and Contents note

The "Photographs, proofs and contact sheets" series contains what could be considered rough drafts of the more finished photographic prints that are found in the "Photographs, mounted prints" series. Many of the images in this series appear elsewhere in the collection in various formats. The majority of the photographic prints in this series are undated and the subjects are unidentified. The prints in this series are arranged chronologically, based on dates that are associated with these images either on their original housing or elsewhere in the collection.

circa 1953-1965.
Box 8 Folder 1-31
circa 1963-1982, undated.
Box 9 Folder 1-38
5x7, sequence shots, undated.
Box 10 Folder 1-2
11x14, sequence shots, undated.
Box 10 Folder 3

Scope and Contents note

The "Photographs, mounted prints" series contains color prints mounted on mat board. There are three sets of prints that are included in this series. Each of the three sets is a different size, and each size constitutes its own subseries.

The "8 x 10 mounted prints" subseries contains colored prints of a wide variety of birds. The birds are identified on most of the prints. There seems to be two groups of prints in this subseries - those dated 1964, and those dated 1969 to 1971. It is not clear if those dates represent the years the photos were taken, or the years the prints were made. Prints with dates between 1969 and 1971 attributed to them tend to have more information about the subject than do the rest of the prints in this subseries, including species, gender, location and date.

The second subseries, "8.5 x 11 mounted prints," are arranged into six volumes. Identification is inconsistent and less explicit than that provided in the "8 x 10" subseries. Most of the prints provide the species name of the subject.

The "10 x 15 mounted prints" subseries is a twenty one volume set of color prints. The set features hummingbirds almost exclusively, except for the final two volumes which contain many of the same images that appear in the smaller sets. Identification is provided for all but a few of the subjects in this set.

The "Stereographs" subseries contains color, and black and white stereographs of a small variety of birds at different angles. These images have been mounted on mat board cards. Most of the cards in this series are numbered 1 to 579, with large gaps in the 500s. This series also contains a group of unnumbered, unidentified stereographs. Some of the birds represented in this series have been identified. Some of the stereographs have dates marked on them, which are probably the dates that the pictures were taken. All of the cards, with the exception of the few unmarked cards at the end of the series, contain some technical data which seems to relate to some function of the camera during the photograph session. The cards seem to have been organized into groups according to an "M" value, and then numbered sequentially.

Original order for the entire "Mounted prints" series has been maintained.

8 x 10 mounted prints, circa 1971.
Box 11 Object 1-85
Volume 1.
Box 12
Volume 2.
Box 12
Volume 3.
Box 12
Volume 4.
Box 13
Volume 5.
Box 13
Volume 6.
Box 13
I:1-13, Painted buntings.
II:1-3, Tufted titmouse.
II:4, Mockingbird.
II:5-6, Adelomyia melanogenys.
II:7-9, Aglaeactis cupripennis.
II:10-11, Aglaeocercus coelestis.
II:12-13, Aglaeocercus kingi.
III:1, Aglaeocercus mocoa.
III:2, Amazilia ?.
III:3-5, Amazilia tobaci.
III:6, Amazilia tzacatl nest.
III:7-8, Amazilia tzacatl.
III:9-10, Amazilia versicolor.
III:11, Amazilia viridiceps.
III:12-13, Anthracothorax nigrocollis.
IV:1, Anthracothorax nigricollis.
IV:2-3, Aphantochroa cirrochloris.
IV:4, Archilochus alexandri and Calypte anna.
IV:5-7, Archilochus alexandri.
IV:8, Archilochus alexandri nest.
IV:9-10, Archilochus colubris.
IV:11-13, Augastes scutatus.
V:1-2, Augastes ?.
V:3-5, Boissonneau flavenscens triochlora.
V:6-10, Boissonneau jardini.
V:11-13, Calliphlox amethystina.
VI:1-5, Calypte anna.
VI:6-7, Calypte costa.
VI:8-9, Campylopterus falcatus.
VI:10-11, Campylopterus obscurus.
VI:12-13, Chlorestes notatus.
VII:1-2, Chlorostilbon alice.
VII:3-5, Chlorostilbon aureoventris.
VII:6-7, Chlorostilbon aureoventris nest.
VII:8-13, Chrysolampis mosquitus.
VIII:1-2, Chrysolampis mosquitus.
VIII:3-4, Clytolaema rubricauda.
VIII:5, Coeligena lutetia.
VIII:6-8, Coeligena torquata.
VIII:9, Colibri coruscans.
VIII:10-11, Colibri coruscans nest.
VIII:12-13, Colibri cyanotus.
IX:1-2, Colibri serrirostris.
IX:3-6, Cynanthus latirostris.
IX:7-9, Discosura longicauda.
IX:10-15, Ensifera ensifera.
X:1, Eriocnemis luciani.
X:2, Eriocnemis luciani and Popelairia conversii.
X:3-6, Cynanthus latirostris.
X:7, Eugenia imperatrix.
X:8-9, Eutoxeres aquila.
X:10-11, Eupetomena macroura.
X:12, Florisuga mellivora.
X:13, Claucis hirsuta.
XI:1-2, Heliactin cornuta.
XI:3, Heliangelus strophianus.
XI:4-6, Heliangelus wilsonii.
XI:7-8, Heliomaster furcifer.
XI:9, Heliomaster longirostris.
XI:10-11, Heliothryx aurita.
XI:12-13, Hylocharis chrysura.
XII:1-2, Hylocharis chrysura.
XII:3-5, Hylocharis cyanus.
XII:6, Hylocharis cyanus rostrata.
XII:7, Hylocharis grayi.
XII:8-9, Hylocharis sapphirina.
XII:10, Lafresnaya saul.
XII:11-14, Lampornis clemenciae.
XIII:1-2, Lesbia victoriae.
XIII:3-4, Lesbia victoriae nest.
XIII:5, Leucochloris albicollis.
XIII:6-8, Lophornis magnifica.
XIII:9-10, Lophornis magnifica nest.
XIII:11-12, Melanotrochilus fuscus.
XIII:13, Metallura tyrianthina.
XIV:1-2, Microchera alboconata.
XIV:3-7, Ocreatus underwoodii.
XIV:8-13, OOreotrochilus chimborazo.
XV:1-2, Oxypogon guerinii.
XV:3, Pabagona gigas.
XV:4-5, Phaethornis augusti.
XV:6, Phaethornis hispidus.
XV:7, Phaethornis hispidus and Lophornis magnificus.
XV:8, Phaethornis idaliae.
XV:9-10, Phaethornis nattereri.
XV:11, Phaethornis pretrei.
XV:12-13, Phaethornis ruber.
XVI:1-3, Phaethornis yaruqui.
XVI:4, Poplairia conversii.
XVI:5-6, Popelairia conversii.
XVI:7-9, Ramphomicron microrhynchum.
XVI:10, Schistes albogularis.
XVI:11-13, Selasphorus platycercus.
XVII:1, Selasphorus platycercus nest.
XVII:2, Selasphorus rufus.
XVII:3-4, Stellula calliope.
XVII:5-8, Stephanoxis lalandi.
XVII:9-10, Stephanoxis loddigesi.
XVII:11, Thalurania furcata.
XVII:12-13, Thalurania glaucopis.
XVIII:1-4, Thalurania watertonii.
XVIII:5, Threnetes ruckeri.
XVIII:6-9, Topaza pella.
XVIII:10-13, Trochilus polytmus.
XIX:1-3, Trochilus polytmus.
XIX:4-5, Urochroa bougueri.
XIX:6, Urosticte benjamini.
XXV:1, Gallicolumba rufigola.
XXV:2, Ptilinopus coronulatus.
XXV:3, Goura victoria.
XXV:4, Psitteuteles goldiei.
XXV:5, Charmosyna pulchella.
XXV:6, Psittrichas fulgidus.
XXV:7, Ceyx lepidus.
XXV:8, Melidora macrorhina.
XXV:9, Dacelo leachi.
XXV:10, Halcyon sancta.
XXV:11, Tanysptera galatea.
XXV:12, Tanysptera nympha.
XXV:13, Morops ornatus.
XXV:14-15, Arses telescophthalmus.
XXV:16, Grallina cyanoleucos.
XXV:17, Manucodia chalybatus.
XXV:18, Phonygammus iceraudrenii.
XXV:19-21, Epimachus mayeri.
XXV:22, Astrapia mayeri.
XXV:23-24, Astrapia stephaniae.
XXV:25, Lophorina superba.
XXV:26-28, Diphyllodes magnificus.
XXV:29-30, Cicinnurus regius.
XXVI:1, Unidentified bird.
XXVI:2, Lophorina superba.
XXVI:3, Merops ornatus.
XXVI:4, Halcyon sancta.
XXVI:5, Cicinnurus regius.
XXVI:6-12, Paradisea raggiana.
XXVI:13, Paradisea minor.
XXVI:14-15, Paradisea guilelmi.
XXVI:16, Archboldia papuensis.
XXVI:17, Chlamydera lauterbachi.
XXVI:18, Ailuroedus buccoides.
XXVI:19-20, Ailuroedus crassirostris.
XXVI:21, Sericulus chrysocephalus.
XXVI:22-23, Ptilonorhyncus violaceus.
XXVI:24-26, Chlamydera nuchalis.
XXVI:27, Melipotes ater.
XXVI:28, Philemon novaeguineae.
XXVI:29, Aegintha temporalis.
XXVI:30-32, Cyanosylvia svecica.
2-47: Ruby throat sideways, 1959 May 9.
Box 25 Folder 1
48-68: Ruby throat sideways, 1959 May 9.
Box 25 Folder 2
69-101: Ruby throat head on, 1959 May 10.
Box 25 Folder 3
102-144: Chickadee, 1959 May 16.
Box 25 Folder 4
146-153: Chickadee at nest, 1959 May 16.
Box 25 Folder 5
154-172: Unidentified hummingbird, 1959 May 16.
Box 25 Folder 6
173-205: Chickadee, 1959 May 23.
Box 25 Folder 7
206-228: Bluebird, 1959 May 24.
Box 25 Folder 8
229-267: Ruby throat head on, 1959 June 27.
Box 25 Folder 9
268-330: Broad tail sideways, 1959 July 31.
Box 25 Folder 10
331-402: Selasphorus platycerus, 1959 July 31.
Box 25 Folder 11
403-433: Selasphorus rufus, 1959 August 1.
Box 25 Folder 12
434-477: Selasphorus platycercus and Selasphorus rufus, 1959 August 1.
Box 25 Folder 13
478-492: Wren, 1959 August 23.
Box 25 Folder 14
493-525: Wren, 1960 August 21.
Box 25 Folder 15
526-545: Cedar waxing, 1960 August 13.
Box 25 Folder 16
546-579: Ruby throat one wing beat from above, 1959 August 23.
Box 25 Folder 17
Various unidentified bird species and duplicates, 1959 August 23.
Box 25 Folder 18

Scope and Contents note

The "Slides and transparencies" series contains various images of birds, some of which can be found in other locations in this collection in various formats. This series is divided into four subseries according to subject and /or medium.

The "Personal collection" subseries contains sets of photographic slides, which seem to be of a personal nature. The slides portray images from family vacations and wildflowers. Also represented in this subseries are some of Greenewalt's early experiments with time lapse photography.

The "Slides of Birds of the World" subseries is a large collection of slides which seems to constitute Greenewalt's attempt to fulfill James L. Peters' Check-list of Birds of the World, an adaptation of which can be found in the first series of this collection. The birds are arranged taxonomically by order. There are multiple images of every bird, and each bird is identified.

The "Transparencies" subseries consists of two small boxes filled with images of birds that Greenewalt photographed in Ecuador. This subseries also includes a set of large glass and plastic transparencies used during the printing of an article about Greenewalt entitled "Bird Watching with an Electronic Eye."

The "Lantern slides" subseries contains two sizes of three distinct sets of images: "Wrens feeding", "Bluebird" and "Slides for high speed camera."

1: "Seconds and duplicates", undated.
Box 26 Bin 1
2: "Seconds and duplicates", undated.
Box 26 Bin 2
3: "Seconds and duplicates", undated.
Box 26 Bin 3
12: Sequence pictures: egg to caterpillar and pupa to butterfly; fish; wildflowers, undated.
Box 26 Bin 4
13: Stereo pictures; feather micrographs, undated.
Box 26 Bin 5
15: Color negatives, undated.
Box 26 Bin 6
16: Color negatives, undated.
Box 27 Bin 1
30: Family vacations, undated.
Box 27 Bin 2
31: Family vacations, undated.
Box 27 Bin 3
32: Family vacations, undated.
Box 27 Bin 4
33: Wildflowers, undated.
Box 27 Bin 5
A: Bound local and Bermuda birds, extras and seconds.
Box 28 Bin 1
B: Bound local and Bermuda birds, extras and seconds.
Box 28 Bin 2
C: Venezuela and Ecuador, 1955, 1956.
Box 28 Bin 3
D: Seminars, papers and books.
Box 28 Bin 4
Slides of Birds of the World, undated.
Box 28-31
Scope and Contents note

Boxes 28-31 contain numerous smaller slide boxes.

Ecuador duplicates and extras, undated.
Box 31 Carton 59-60
Continuous tones for William Dutton article on Greenewalt, 1951.
Box 41
Wren series, undated.
Bluebird series, undated.
Camera set-up series, undated.

Scope and Contents note

The "Negatives" series contains photographic negatives of many of the prints in this collection. Three pre-arranged groups of negatives have been arranged into three subseries.

The "Early high speed photographs of unidentified birds" subseries is housed in eleven booklets that have been numbered. These images seem to date from the early to mid-1950s, and the birds represented in this subseries are unidentified.

The negatives in the "Stereographs" subseries have been numbered 1 to 1000. This subseries also contains a small number of identified birds which are: the tree swallow, the house finch, the Australian finch and the cardinal.

The third subseries, "Sequence shots of unidentified birds" contains a group of heavily damaged negatives, which are numbered 1-200.

Original order has been maintained throughout the series.

Early high speed photographs of unidentified birds, circa 1950.
Box 32 Carton 1-11
Stereographs, undated.
Box 32 Carton 12
Sequence shots of unidentified birds, undated.
Box 32 Carton 13
Microscope slides, undated.
Box 31 Bin 1-4
Scope and Contents note

The "Microscope slides" series consist of four boxes filled with microscope slides, upon which are mounted hummingbird and sunbird feathers. The feathers on each slide have been identified. It does not seem that the slides are in any particular order, but no order has been imposed during processing. The cases are labeled "1" through "4."

Scope and Contents note

The "Sketches for 1960 publication Hummingbirds" series contains a variety of hand drawn illustrations in various sizes. This set of sketches constitutes the creation and selection process for the illustrations that appear in Greenewalt’s 1960 publication Hummingbirds. Along with the originals, this series also contains illustrations that had not been chosen for publication, including alternate versions and unique images. This series is arranged according to the order in which the illustrations appear in the publication, with works not selected filed at the end of the series.

Page 6, "Tails", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 1-2 Oversize Drawer 89 Object 1
Page 11, "Awake and Asleep", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 3-4
Page 15, "Food and Drink", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 5
Page 16, "Large and Small", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 6 Oversize Drawer 89 Object 3
Page 18, "Bills", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 7-8 Object Drawer 89 Object 2
page 18, Eutoxeres aquila; Ensifera ensifera.
Box 33 Folder 1
Page 21, "Belligerence", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 9
Pages 25 and 26, "Nests," and "Feeding Young", circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 10-11 Oversize Drawer 89 Object 4
Page 27, Unidentified hummingbird.
Box 33 Folder 2
Pages 168, 202, 240, 251, Archilochus colubris.
Box 33 Folder 3
Page 174, Cross section of bird feathers.
Box 33 Folder 4 Oversize Drawer 89 Object 5-9
Page 205, Hummingbird wing skeleton.
Box 33 Folder 5
Page 215, Wing beat rate and wing length.
Box 33 Folder 6
Page 223, Hummingbird wing patterns.
Box 33 Folder 7
Page 224, Hummingbird hovering, view from above.
Box 33 Folder 8
Page 225, Hummingbird hovering, side view.
Box 33 Folder 9
Page 226, Wing upbeat and downbeat.
Box 33 Folder 10-11
Page 227, Flying backward.
Box 33 Folder 12
Page 228-229, Ruby throat in flight.
Box 34 Folder 1
Page 230-231, Chickadee wing beat.
Box 34 Folder 2
Page 231, Chickadee detail.
Box 34 Folder 3
Page 232, Hummingbird acrobatics.
Box 34 Folder 4
Page 235, Wing plane and wing velocity.
Box 34 Folder 5
Unpublished versions, circa 1960.
Box 39 Folder 12-19
Unpublished sketches of feathers.
Box 34 Folder 6
Unpublished humorous hummingbird sketches.
Box 34 Folder 7

Scope and Contents note

The “Awards” series provides evidence of the wide-spread recognition that Greenewalt received for his various pursuits. Greenewalt received honorary degrees from a variety of academic institutions, and medals from academic and trade organizations.

The “Awards” series is divided by medium into three subseries. The first subseries contains rolled-up and encased diplomas and certificates; the second subseries contains medals, pins, and statuettes; the final subseries contains programs from various events at which Greenewalt was recognized, such as commencements and organizational meetings. These programs are arranged chronologically. The other material is loose in the boxes.

Physical Description

endless. see oversize.

Honorary Degrees, certificates and plaques (34 awards). 22 certificates.
Box 35-36, 40
Physical Description

22 certificates

Lavoisier Medal for Technical Achievements. Dupont.
Convocations, 1952-1971.
Box 38 Folder 1-2
Ceremonies, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1967.
Box 38 Folder 3

Scope and Contents note

The “Objects” series contains a few artifacts related to Greenewalt’s work with ornithological photography. There is a metal camera case which contains a camera and various camera accessories. The leather case housed Greenewalt’s camera (which is now part of VIREO’s holdings, along with Greenewalt’s set), and now contains some random parts and stereograph lenses. This series also includes the Greenewalt’s aluminum camera floating action tripod. The fourth item in this series is a leather map case filled with color travel maps of various European territories.

Metal camera case and camera accessories, undated.
Leather camera bag and camera accessories, undated.
Leather case containing, maps and travel documents, undated.
Tripod, undated.

Print, Suggest